TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 
   

ALL ABOUT POTASSIUM

 

ON THIS PAGE:


Why Potassium Imbalances are Important


Frequency of Potassium Imbalances


Measuring Potassium Levels


Goal for Potassium Levels in Bloodwork


Low Potassium:


Symptoms of Low Potassium Levels


Other Causes of Low Potassium (Including Hyperaldosteronism)


Treatments for Low Potassium Levels


High Potassium:


Symptoms of High Potassium Levels


Treatments for High Potassium Levels


 

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Home > Key Issues > Potassium Imbalances

 


Overview


  • Potassium imbalances are common in CKD cats.

  • Potassium helps muscles, including the heart, to function, so it is important to keep it within a healthy range.

  • Low potassium levels (hypokalaemia) occur in around 30% of CKD cats. The most usual treatment is an oral potassium supplement.

  • High potassium levels (hyperkalaemia) occur in around 13% of CKD cats, who usually have more advanced CKD. These are harder to manage, but there are a few possible treatments.


Frequency of Potassium Imbalances


 

Imbalances are quite common in CKD cats. In the earlier stages of CKD, potassium levels are usually too low because potassium is lost in the increased urination and vomiting commonly seen in CKD cats. Low potassium levels are known as hypokalaemia. One study, Feline renal failure: questions, answers, questions (1992) Lulich JP, Osborne CA, O’Brien TD and Polzin DJ Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practising Veterinarian 14 pp127-153, estimated that approximately 30% of CKD cats have low potassium levels.

 

However, in cats whose CKD is relatively advanced (in IRIS stage 4, with creatinine over 5), the opposite problem may occur and potassium levels may become too high - this is known as hyperkalaemia. Occasionally hyperkalaemia is also seen in cats with less severe CKD. The study mentioned above (Lulich et al., 1992) found that around 13% of CKD cats have hyperkalaemia. Thomas had this problem towards the end, when his creatinine was over 7 for about a month and he did develop extremely high potassium levels during his last few days.

 


Why Potassium Imbalances Are Important                                                     Back to Page Index


 

Potassium is an electrolyte (body salt) which acts in concert with sodium. It is used at cellular level, and two of its most important functions are to help muscles function smoothly, and, since the heart is a muscle, regulation of the heart rhythm.

 

Low potassium levels can damage the kidneys and may make CKD progress more quickly, and may contribute to the development of both metabolic acidosis and hypertension. If your cat has low potassium levels and metabolic acidosis, it is very important to treat both conditions because, as Dr D Polzin states in Chronic Renal Failure (2001), "potassium depletion and metabolic acidosis may promote potentially fatal reductions in plasma taurine concentrations in cats."

 

High potassium levels may cause heart problems, which in the worst case could result in heart failure.

 

Therefore it is essential to monitor your cat's potassium levels regularly and to treat any imbalances which may arise.

 


Measuring Potassium Levels                                                                         Back to Page Index


 

A blood test will tell your vet if your cat's potassium level is too low or too high. However, sometimes the level may look artificially high or artificially low:

  • If the sample is haemolysed (the blood cells in the sample have ruptured), the potassium level may look higher than it actually is, though occasionally it will look lower than it actually is.

  • If the sample has sat around for a while before being tested, the potassium level may look artificially high.

  • A cat with a very high white blood cell count, perhaps because of infection, may have artificially low potassium levels.

  • In a cat with metabolic acidosis, the potassium level may appear normal or high in blood tests, but may subsequently fall after the metabolic acidosis is treated.

Conversely, potassium levels may appear to be normal when in fact there is a deficiency. Dr D Polzin states in Chronic kidney disease (2006) "muscle potassium content decreased in normokalemic cats with spontaneous CKD, indicating that a total-body deficit of potassium may develop well before the onset of hypokalemia." This is because, although potassium is used in the body's cells, the regulatory mechanism of the body is actually set to maintain a certain level of potassium in the blood, not the cells. Thus, when potassium levels drop, as they tend to do in early stage CKD, the cat's body will try to maintain levels of potassium in the blood by taking potassium from the cells. This means that at the intra-cellular level where the potassium is really needed, potassium levels are too low, even though the blood levels of potassium may appear to be normal.

 

There are a number of tests available for humans to test potassium at the intracellular level. One is the Exa Test, which requires a buccal sample (from the cheek inside the mouth). I only know of one person who has had potassium checked at the intracellular level, but unfortunately he cannot remember which company his vet used.

 


Goal for Potassium Level in Bloodwork                                                                    Back to Page Index


 

In 11 guidelines for conservatively treating chronic kidney disease (2007) Polzin D, Veterinary Medicine December 2007, Dr Polzin states "Intervention to manage serum potassium concentrations is indicated in dogs and cats when the concentrations fall outside the target range of 3.5 to 5.5 mEq/L, regardless of the chronic kidney disease stage."

 

Thus Dr Polzin recommends starting treatment if potassium is outside the laboratory range. However, because of the problems in measuring levels of potassium in the cells accurately, and since hypokalaemia may damage the kidneys and make the CKD progress more quickly, and may contribute to the development of both metabolic acidosis and hypertension, it may be appropriate to supplement potassium in CKD cats when it falls below the middle of the normal range. For most laboratories, this would mean supplementation for cats whose potassium level is below 4.0 mEq/L US or 4.0 mmol/L international - although the measurement systems are different, the values for potassium are the same in both ranges. The reason for this is that if it is impossible to raise the levels in the blood to the middle of normal, it must be because the cells are depleted to such an extent that they cannot release any more potassium into the blood.

 

My Ollie had a potassium level of 3.5 mmol/L at diagnosis, which was technically within range. However, he could barely walk (see the photo above). My vet started him on a potassium supplement and within two days he could walk normally again.

 

In Chronic renal failure in the cat (2006) Sparkes A, Presentation to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Dr Sparkes states "Potassium concentrations should be monitored regularly in cats with CKD and if they fall below 4 mmol/l, supplementation with potassium salts is recommended."

In 11 guidelines for conservatively treating chronic kidney disease (2007) Polzin D, Veterinary Medicine December 2007, Dr Polzin himself states on page 3 "The goal of therapy for hypokalemia is to bring the serum potassium concentration above 4 mEq/L."

 


Low Potassium Levels                                                                                         Back to Page Index


 

Symptoms of Low Potassium Levels                                                                          


 

Most CKD cats with potassium imbalances have low potassium levels because potassium is lost from the body in the increased urination and vomiting commonly seen in CKD. These are the most common symptoms of low potassium levels. Rather confusingly, two of them (twitching and lethargy) may also be symptoms of high potassium levels.

Pet Place discusses hypokalaemia in cats.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has some information about low potassium levels.

Penn State Hershey Medical Center has some information on low potassium levels in humans.

 

Twitching, Trembling or Shaking


 Low potassium levels can cause twitching, trembling or shaking. Other possible causes include high potassium levels, high blood pressure, high phosphorus levels, calcium imbalances (especially head twitching), hyperthyroidism or Vitamin B deficiency. Twitching may also be caused by high toxin levels. If your cat only twitches while you are giving fluids, it is probably caused by either the type of fluid used or by giving cold (room temperature) fluids.

 

Pharaoh's Shakes is a video showing a CKD cat twitching.

Pet MD mentions that twitching may be caused by kidney disease.

 

Weakness, Especially in the Back Legs


Weakness may be seen in the back legs. This is a common symptom of low potassium levels. You may also see a plantigrade posture, where the cat walks on his/her hocks instead of his/her feet, like Ollie to the left. His back half also seemed to sway when he walked. This photo was taken a  day after he came to live with us a week before his 16th birthday. Since Ollie is so fluffy, you may find this photo on 123catworld clearer.

 

Ollie saw the vet that day and since his potassium level was at the very bottom of the range (3.5), she started him on a potassium supplement - he had his first dose just after this photo was taken. There was improvement within 24 hours, and within 48 hours he was walking normally again.

 

A plantigrade stance can have other causes. It is most likely to occur in diabetic cats, caused by diabetic neuropathy. Long Beach Animal Hospital has a photograph of a cat with diabetic neuropathy doing this (click on Symptoms). Newman Veterinary has a good before and after photo of a diabetic cat with this problem, scroll down a little to Other Common Consequences, then click on Plantigrade Stance (in red font).

 

University of Chicago Jack Miller Center for Peripheral Neuropathy is a human site which discusses uraemic neuropathy (neuropathy caused by CKD).

 

Back leg weakness and/or a plantigrade stance may also be caused by high phosphorus levels which interfere with the nerve messages that control the limbs, a condition known as peripheral neuropathy. Occasionally the cause is low magnesium or low calcium levels.

 

General weakness may be caused by anaemia, or because the cat is simply not eating enough. It is essential that cats eat, because if they do not eat, they are at risk of developing a potentially life-threatening condition called hepatic lipidosis; Mar Vista Vet has more information about this. Therefore, it is important to try to find the cause and treat it as quickly as possible.

 

If your cat no longer jumps, this may be thought to be weakness when in fact it is an unwillingness to jump because of blindness caused by hypertension. An inability to jump or climb may also be caused by arthritis.

 

Stilted Gait in the Front Legs


This is usually a sign of low potassium levels.

 

Stiff Neck or Inability to Hold Up Head (Ventroflexion)


The cat may be unable to raise his or her head properly - in most CKD cats, this is a symptom of potassium deficiency. Very occasionally, this may be a sign of thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency, which is sometimes seen in cats fed too much fish.

 

Long Beach Animal Hospital has a photograph of a cat with this problem - scroll down to find the photograph.

 

Stilted Gait in the Front Legs


This is usually a sign of low potassium levels

 

Hoarseness


This can be caused by low potassium levels adversely affecting the vocal chords. Alternatively, this is sometimes a sign of excess stomach acid. If accompanied by coughing, consider the possibilities of fluid build-up and/or heart problems.

 

Trouble Breathing


This can be a sign of low potassium levels or metabolic acidosis. Other possible causes include fluid build-up, heart problems or anaemia.

 

Increased Night-time Urination


One peculiarity which you may see is nocturia, or excessive urination during the night, which may be caused by low potassium levels. Another possible cause is calcitriol. If you only give your cat sub-Qs late at night, this might also be the cause.

 

Constipation


This may be a sign of low potassium levels. It may also be caused by dehydration or high calcium levels.

 

Lethargy


This may be a sign of low or high potassium levels, anaemia or hypertension. Lethargy may sometimes be a sign of heart problems, especially if it appears after giving fluids.

 

Loss of Appetite


Low potassium levels may be a factor in a cat having a poor appetite.

 


Other Causes of Low Potassium Levels                                                         Back to Page Index


 

Hyperthyroidism


Cats with hyperthyroidism may have low potassium levels.

 

Diabetes


Cats with diabetes may have low potassium levels.

 

Hyperaldosteronism


Very occasionally, low potassium levels may be caused by a condition known as hyperaldosteronism. This may make the CKD progress faster, so it is important to treat it if present. It is more common in cats with hyperthyroidism.

 

Aldosterone is a hormone which regulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood. In hyperaldosteronism, too much aldosterone is produced (usually because of a benign tumour on the adrenal glands), so the cat will develop low potassium levels and high sodium levels which eventually lead to hypertension (high blood pressure). If your cat has low potassium levels and low magnesium levels, and the potassium does not rise even after treating the low magnesium, ask your vet to rule out hyperaldosteronism, especially if your cat has hypertension.

 

Treatment is the same as for CKD cats with these problems, i.e. potassium supplements and medication to control the high blood pressure, though surgery to remove the affected adrenal gland is also an option in some cases, and may completely resolve the problem for some cats.

 

Less common feline endocrinopathies (2004) is a presentation by BR Jones to the World Small Animal Association World Congress 2004. Scroll to the last section for information on hyperaldosteronism.

Primary hyperaldosteronism in the cat: a series of 13 cases (2005) Ash RA, Harvey AM & Tasker S Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 7(3) pp173-82 states that "it is recommended that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a differential diagnosis in middle-aged and older cats with hypokalaemic polymyopathy and/or systemic hypertension and should no longer be considered a rare condition."

Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats - an underdiagnosed disorder (2010) Kooistra HS Presentation to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress explains more about diagnosis and treatment.

Best treatment for hyperaldosteronism in cats? (2011) ME Peterson Insights Into Veterinary Endocrinology discusses the pros and cons of surgery for this problem.

Feline hyperaldosteronism: recognition and diagnosis (2012) Bisignano J & Bruyette DS discusses how to recognise and diagnose hyperaldosteronism.

Feline hyperaldosteronism: treatment and prognosis (2012) Bisignano J discusses the treatment of hyperaldosteronism.

 

Inherited Hypokalaemia


Pet Place mentions that Burmese cats may develop an inherited form of low potassium levels. This appears to occur in Burmese cats outside the USA. First WNK4-hypokalemia animal model identified by genome-wid association in Burmese cats (2012) Gandolfi B, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Malik R, Cortes A, Jones BR, Helps CR, Prinzenberg EM, Erhardt G &  Lyons LA Public Library of Science One 7(12) e53173 found the gene which seems to cause this problem.

 

Langford Veterinary Services in the UK (owned by the University of Bristol which participated in the above research into this problem) can now perform a genetic test from a mouth swab to test for this problem.

 


Treating Low Potassium Levels (Hypokalaemia)                                          Back to Page Index


Diet and Fluids


Prescription renal foods contain additional potassium, as do some types of sub-Q fluids, and for mild hypokalaemia either or both of these treatments may be enough to resolve the problem.

 


Potassium Supplements                                                                                      Back to Page Index


 

If additional treatment is necessary, the usual treatment for low potassium levels is an oral potassium supplement. Occasionally potassium is added to the sub-Q fluid bag instead, but this can sting.

Types of Supplement


There are three main types of potassium supplement:

Unfortunately, oral potassium supplements can make some cats vomit more - after all, potassium is a type of salt, and salt would give anyone a stomach upset if taken neat. Supplements may also cause diarrhoea in some cats. The solution is to try to spread them out more and mix them in with foods. Most people find the powder form or crushed pills easiest to use, because the daily dose can be spread over several meals. If the problem persists, ask your vet about changing the brand and/or formula you are using in case that helps.

 

ACE inhibitors such as benazepril (Fortekor) may make potassium levels rise; so if your vet has prescribed Fortekor, as many British vets do, your vet should monitor potassium levels carefully and adjust the dose as appropriate.

 

Cyproheptadine is a medication often used as an appetite stimulant in CKD cats. Cyproheptadine - from barking dogs to wheezing cats, a handy helper! (2010) Seavers A The Veterinarian 260 mentions that a 1998 study by Norris et al. found that "medications such as cyproheptadine, when used in conjunction with oral potassium salts, can cause slowing of GI transit and increases the local exposure to high potassium concentrations. High potassium concentrations may lead to GI tract ulceration or stenosis." Therefore, if you are using cyproheptadine, I would ask your vet if you need to adjust the dosage of your potassium supplement downwards.

 

In terms of monitoring, Dr D Polzin recommends in Renal disease (2006) that cats with severe symptoms (such as multiple muscle weakness) should be monitored every 24-48 hours when first beginning a supplement, and that all cats should be checked every 7-14 days until the appropriate maintenance dose is established.

 

Never administer potassium supplements without your vet's approval - an overdose of potassium can cause heart failure. It is not recommended to give potassium to a cat with a high creatinine level (above 500, USA above 6) without the cat being monitored closely by a heart specialist. Cats with creatinine at this level often have high levels of potassium and do not require a potassium supplement anyway. Potassium should also never be given to a cat who cannot urinate.

 

Combined Supplements


If you are in the UK, you may be offered a product called Kaminox. This is a combination of B vitamins, iron and potassium gluconate. Alfamedic provides a list of the ingredients. 

 

In the USA there are two products available containing potassium and B vitamins, Renal K+ made by Vetoquinol (precise ingredients unknown), and Amino B & K from Emerson Ecologics.

 

See below for sources.

 

Potassium Gluconate


 

Dosage


In Renal disease (2006) Dr D Polzin recommends "Depending on the size of the cat and severity of hypokalemia, potassium gluconate is given initially at a dose of 2 to 6 mEq per cat per day." He further recommends that potassium levels should be monitored every 24-48 hours when first beginning to supplement for cats with severe symptoms, and thereafter every 7-14 days. Do not supplement potassium without your vet's knowledge and approval, because not all CKD cats have low potassium levels, and giving potassium to a cat who does not need it can be very dangerous. Potassium should never be given to a cat who cannot urinate.

 

It can be rather tricky calculating potassium doses because there is a difference between potassium and elemental potassium, which is what dosages are based on.

 

Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook (6th Edition) states that 1 gram (1000mg) of potassium gluconate contains 4.3 mEq of potassium, which is approximately 168 mg of elemental potassium.

 

Many people use a veterinary potassium supplement called Tumil-K. Tumil-K contains 468mg of potassium gluconate, which means it contains 78mg of elemental potassium. The atomic weight of potassium is 39 which means this is 2 mEq of elemental potassium. The manufacturer recommends 2 mEq per 10 lbs (4.5kg) body weight twice per day. This is contained in one caplet, half a teaspoonful of gel or a quarter of a level teaspoon  (0.65g) of the powder. I used this dosage for Ollie on my vet's advice and Ollie's symptoms improved within two days, but be guided by your vet as to an appropriate dose for your cat.

 

Potassium supplements for humans are widely available in health food shops without prescription, often very cheaply, for US$4 or so for 100 pills, so many people use these with their vet's approval. Most human potassium gluconate tablets contain more elemental potassium than Tumil-K because Tumil-K is flavoured (the flavourings take up room). However, the amount of elemental potassium in an over the counter supplement in the USA cannot exceed 99mg, so most potassium gluconate tablets for humans contain 99mg of elemental potassium, which is 590mg of potassium gluconate and 2.53 mEq. This means that 0.79% of this strength of tablet is the equivalent of Tumil-K, so to obtain 2 mEq you would give three quarters of a tablet. The NOW brand of powdered potassium gluconate is stronger than this: it contains 650 mg of potassium gluconate in 1/4 tsp, which is 135mg of elemental potassium or 3.45meq. In other words, an eighth of a teaspoon of the NOW brand powder is equal to a bit less than the usual Tumil-K dose of half a teaspoon.

 

Tumil-K is a veterinary formula stocked by many vets. It is rather expensive, but is a good choice because it does not contain phosphorus. It comes in powder, caplet or gel form. Drugs has some information about it.

Potassa-Chew is a chewable form of potassium gluconate. The manufacturers claim over 60% of cats will eat this willingly as a type of treat.

Renakare is a generic version of potassium gluconate which comes in tablet, powder or gel form.

Drugs has some information about potassium gluconate.

 

Potassium Citrate


This is a good choice for cats who also have metabolic acidosis. In fact, Dr D Polzin says in Renal disease (2006) that other treatments for metabolic acidosis in cats who also have low potassium levels may only be of limited use. He recommends Polycitra-K in syrup form. He states that a common starting dose is 40 to 60 mg per kg of cat per day (18 to 27 mg per pound of cat) divided into 2 or 3 doses.

 

Potassium citrate must be given at least two hours apart from any phosphorus binders containing aluminium, because citrate may increase the absorption of aluminium. Potassium citrate is not recommended for use in cats who are prone to forming struvite crystals in the urine. However, this means it may be suitable for cats with calcium oxalate stones.

 

Urocit-K is one brand.

Drugs has some information about potassium citrate.

 

Potassium Chloride


Some vets recommend potassium chloride because it is cheaper. Few people use potassium chloride in the oral form because it may contribute to metabolic acidosis, but if you want to give potassium by adding it to your cat's sub-Q fluids, this is the type you would use.

 

Injectible Potassium Chloride


This is available in a 2 mEq/ml strength, in either 10ml or 20 ml vials. If your vet adds the 10ml strength vial to your bag of 1000ml sub-Q fluid, the bag now contains 20 mEq of potassium. If you are giving 100ml a day of fluids, you are giving 2 mEq of potassium each day, or the equivalent of one Tumil-K caplet a day. If you give potassium in this way, be aware that it can sting.

 

Slow-K is one brand.

Drugs has some information about potassium chloride.

 

Sources


  • Thriving Pets sells a variety of potassium supplements, including injectible versions. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55. Shipping is free for orders over US$55 after the discount.

 

USA: Potassium Gluconate


Many people simply buy over the counter human brands of potassium gluconate at their local health food store without prescription for US$4 or so for 100 pills which they can then crush and add to their cat's food. Be very careful about the dosage if you do this, because human potassium supplements are stronger than most veterinary supplements.

  • Thriving Pets sells a 200g jar for US$19.95. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55. Shipping is free for orders over US$55 after the discount.

  • Lucky Vitamin sells the NOW brand in powder form at US$9.48 for 1 lb with flat rate shipping.

  • California Veterinary Supply sell a chewable form of potassium gluconate. 100 chews cost US$6.39. The manufacturers claim over 60% of cats will eat this willingly as a type of treat.

USA: Renal K+ (with Added Vitamin B)


  • Thriving Pets sells 100g in powder form for US$12.95. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55. Shipping is free for orders over US$55 after the discount.

  • Amazon sells 100g in powder form for US$13.25 with free shipping.

 

UK: Potassium Gluconate


UK: Kaminox (with Added Vitamin B)


  • Vet UK sells Kaminox for £19.86 for 120ml, with free UK shipping.


High Potassium Levels                                                                                       Back to Page Index


 

Symptoms of High Potassium Levels                                                           


 

Cats whose CKD is relatively advanced (IRIS stage 4, with creatinine over 5) may develop high potassium levels. These are the usual symptoms. Rather confusingly, two of them (twitching and lethargy) may also be symptoms of low potassium levels.

Lethargy


This may be a sign of high or low potassium levels, anaemia or hypertension. Lethargy may sometimes be a sign of heart problems, especially if it appears after giving fluids.

 

Twitching, Trembling or Shaking


Twitching may be related to potassium levels in the body. In early CKD, it is likely to be due to potassium levels being too low, but in cats with higher bloodwork levels, potassium levels may rise and cause twitching as happened to Thomas on his last day.

 

Other possible causes include low potassium levels, high blood pressure, high phosphorus levels, calcium imbalances (especially head twitching), hyperthyroidism or Vitamin B deficiency. Twitching may also be caused by high toxin levels. If your cat only twitches while you are giving fluids, it is probably caused by either the type of fluid used or by giving cold (room temperature) fluids.

 

Pharaoh's Shakes is a video showing a CKD cat twitching.

Pet MD mentions that twitching may be caused by kidney disease.

 

Seizures


With high potassium levels, heart problems can arise, and short seizures may also occur, especially in end stage renal failure. 

 

Seizures may take a number of different forms. There may be the classic jerking and loss of consciousness, but being "spaced out" or mentally absent or staring into space may also be a type of seizure. Harpsie' s website has more information on what seizures may look like.

 

Seizures can also be a sign of high blood pressure, high levels of toxins, metabolic acidosis or of calcium imbalances. The use of Reglan (metoclopramide) for stomach problems or Advantage for fleas may lower the seizure threshold. Other possible causes of seizures include epilepsy or a brain tumour, but the causes mentioned above are far more likely in a CKD cat and should therefore be considered first.

 

Treating High Potassium Levels (Hyperkalaemia)                                       


It is important to understand that not all CKD cats need potassium supplements. Some cats never have low potassium levels, particularly if the CKD is relatively advanced (IRIS stage 4, creatinine over 5). Thomas's creatinine was not that high, yet he never needed potassium. Feline renal failure: questions, answers, questions (1992) Lulich JP, Osborne CA, O’Brien TD and Polzin DJ Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practising Veterinarian 14 pp127-153) found that around 13% of CKD cats have high potassium levels. Therefore you should not supplement potassium without a blood test and your vet's approval.

 

If your cat has high potassium levels (over 6), this is potentially very dangerous, and may cause seizures and even a heart attack. But don't panic: quite often bloodwork may indicate high potassium levels when in fact it is an error caused by a haemolysed blood sample or by leaving the blood for a while before testing it. Your vet will probably re-run the test to be sure that you really are dealing with high potassium levels.

 

If a cat has metabolic acidosis, the cat's potassium levels may appear high or normal in blood tests, but may subsequently fall after the metabolic acidosis is treated.

 

If, however, your cat does indeed have high potassium levels (which is relatively common in cats with creatinine over 5), it is important to try to reduce them. Unfortunately it is not always easy to control hyperkalaemia, particularly if your cat is no longer urinating much or at all. The first thing to do, of course, is to stop all potassium supplements. Increased fluid therapy may help but you would probably need to use saline fluid rather than lactated ringers solution, which contains potassium. Using ACE inhibitors such as  benazepril (Fortekor) may increase potassium levels, so you may need to reduce or stop this treatment, although you should only do this with veterinary approval and you may need to reduce the drug gradually rather than suddenly. 

 

For really high potassium levels, sometimes insulin may be administered in conjunction with dextrose or sodium bicarbonate, which work together to move potassium intra-cellularly. If your cat has oliguria (reduced urination), diuretics such as Lasix (furosemide) may be suggested by your vet in an attempt to get urine flowing again. Pet Place reports that albuterol, a bronchodilator commonly used to help open the airways during asthma attacks, has also been used in treating hyperkalaemia associated with CKD.

 

In extreme cases, your vet may choose to use a potassium exchange resin: I heard from one person who successfully used a human drug called sodium polystyrene sulfonate (potassium kayexolate) which has apparently been used to a limited extent in dogs but I do not know of anybody else who has used this for a cat. Potassium levels need to be monitored daily when using this treatment.  

 

Doyle Medical has information on the use of these drugs in human emergency medicine, scroll down to Treatment of Hyperkalaemia Using Insulin.

Pet MD discusses high potassium levels.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has some information on hyperkalaemia. 

Medline discusses high potassium in humans, but the basic principles are similar for cats.

E Medicine is a human site with information on hyperkalaemia.

Endocrine Emergencies is a presentation by Dr MS Wallace to the Atlantic Coast Veterinary Conference 2001.

 

 

Back to Page Index

This page last updated: 15 September 2013

Links on this page last checked: 20 April 2012

 

The group is hosted on yahoo!groups, part of yahoo. It has its own address separate from Tanya's website. You can either click here or copy and paste this link into your browser:

 

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

 

If you are already familiar with yahoo!groups, just click on the link and apply to join (and don't forget to complete the short questionnaire you'll be sent), but if you'd like to know more about how the group works, read on.

 

I own and run the group, but I am ably assisted by two moderators, Anne V and Anne A. They help with membership queries, approve messages, and do lots of boring admin stuff behind the scenes to help the group run smoothly for the members.

 

The group has various sections, including a photos section and a realtime chat function but for most people the most important part of the group is its message section. Basically, a member who wants support, vet recommendations, or to hear how others are coping with a particular problem, sends a message to the rest of the group. Other members then respond if they can. All messages sent to the group are stored in a message archive which members can search if they wish.

 

The group is private, i.e. messages sent to it are only visible to members, so people are not posting to the internet at large. The names of group members are also private, so nobody will know you are a member unless you choose to send messages to the group.

 


Joining the Group                                                                                                                        Back to Page Index


 

There are two ways to join the group, via the group's website or via e-mail:

 

How to Join the Group via E-mail


Just send an e-mail to

tanyas-ckd-support-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

You should then receive an e-mail in response asking you to confirm that you definitely want to join the group. Just click Reply and send.

 

If you join the group via e-mail, you will be able to send and receive e-mails to the group, but you will not be able to access the group website and read the message archives or look at the photos. If you wish to do that, you will need to set up a yahoo! ID by visiting the group website.

 

How to Join the Group via the Web


You can visit the group's homepage and follow the instructions. If you do this, yahoo!groups will help you set up your yahoo! ID, which gives you access to the group message archive etc. A yahoo! ID is not the same thing as an e-mail address.

 

Here are the steps to follow. Don't worry, this all sounds far worse than it is! You should find that in practice it all works more smoothly than it sounds when you're trying to explain it in writing:

 

Existing yahoo! ID

  1. Go to the group website: http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

  2. Click on the Join this Group button and you'll be taken to a Sign In to Yahoo! page.

  3. Sign in and link Tanya's Support Group to your existing account.

  4. Choose the e-mail address you wish to use for the group (see below).

  5. There is a little box for you to tell me why you would like to join the group. You don't need to be inventive or fancy, it's not a competition, it's just an extra check by yahoo!groups to keep spammers out.

  6. Choose your message delivery options (see below).

  7. Scroll down and click on the blue Join button at the bottom right of the page.

New yahoo! ID

  1. Go to the group website: http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

  2. Click on the Join this Group button and you'll be taken to a Sign In to Yahoo! page.

  3. Scroll down a little and click on the Create New Account button.

  4. On the next page you can create your new account. Some people are somewhat inventive in their responses, but in such cases it is important to remember what responses have been given in case the information is needed later to access the account. I can't see any of this stuff, it's entirely private between you and yahoo!groups, so I cannot help in case of later queries. 

  5. Once the account is successfully set up, you'll be taken to a Congratulations! page.

  6. Before you click on the Continue button on the Congratulations! page, untick the box that makes yahoo! your homepage (unless that is what you want).

  7. Also click on the Edit Marketing Preferences link below the Continue button. This takes you to another page where they helpfully opt you in to everything, so go through and set it as you wish.

  8. Then on the same separate page click on Account Info at the top of the page. You will be asked for your password again and taken to the Account Info page. Click on Profile and opt out of the various choices as you wish. The key thing is, you do have choices here, you can make things as public or private as you wish.

  9. Now click on the Continue button on the original page. You will be taken back to the group page to choose your membership settings.

  10. Choose the e-mail address you wish to use for the group (see below).

  11. There is a little box for you to tell me why you would like to join the group. You don't need to be inventive or fancy, it's not a competition, it's just an extra check by yahoo!groups to keep spammers out.

  12. Choose your message delivery options (see below).

  13. Scroll down and click on the blue Join button at the bottom right of the page.


Membership Settings                                                                                          Back to Page Index


 

There are various choices you need to make regarding your membership of the group. The most important are which e-mail address to use, and which way you read messages sent to the group by group members.

 

Membership Settings: Your E-mail Address


You need to decide which e-mail address you wish to use for the group. If you have created a yahoo! ID, yahoo!groups will normally have also set up a free yahoo! e-mail account for you based on your new yahoo ID. You can use this e-mail address to access the group if you wish, but it's not essential, you can use any e-mail address you wish. Since yahoo! is now scanning messages for advertising purposes (similar to gmail), I would recommend not using yahoo! e-mail if possible (though it would probably be better than using your work address for private stuff).

 

If you do not want to use your free yahoo! e-mail address, click on Add e-mail address to add a different one. Be aware, if you don't add a new address here, yahoo! will use the yahoo! e-mail address as a default address. So if you don't receive the membership questionnaire, it may well be because it's gone to your new yahoo! e-mail address.

 

If you ever wish to change the e-mail address you are using for the group, you can do that here:

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/join

 

Membership Settings: Message Delivery


This sets up how you will access messages that are sent to the group.

 

This is a pretty active group. If you're looking after your CKD cat, you want support but you probably don't want a full inbox all the time. To help you manage this issue, you have three options for messages, and you can switch between them all as you wish:

  1. Individual E-mails

  2. Daily Digest

  3. Web Only (No e-mail)

Individual E-mails


This is the default setting. If you apply to join the group via e-mail, you will end up with this setting. If you apply to join the group via the group's webpage, if you don't choose one of the other settings, this is the one you will end up with.

 

This setting means that as soon as somebody sends a message to the group, it is sent directly to your inbox. It's a good choice if you might want to know immediately if somebody has responded to you, or if you would like to store some of the group messages for your reference. It's also good for being able to quickly delete messages which don't interest you.

 

The downside is that this is a busy group, averaging 50-100 group messages each day, so your inbox can quickly get full. One solution is to create a folder to use for group messages. All messages sent to the group have a tag in the subject line [tanya-crf] so you can filter all messages from the group to a new folder using this tag if you wish.

 

With both individual e-mail and message digest options, you can also choose the format of messages sent to you (Display Format), either Fully Featured (html, pretty colours etc.) or Traditional (plain text).

 

Message Digest


This means that you receive e-mails from the group, but yahoo!groups waits until there are about 25 messages available and sends them to you all in one go. With this option, you would therefore only receive 2-4 e-mails a day from the group, but it means you have to wait for responses (though you can still check on the group website for messages) and it can be more difficult to find what you are looking for within each digest.

 

With both individual e-mail and message digest options, you can also choose the format of messages sent to you (Display Format), either Fully Featured (html, pretty colours etc.) or Traditional (plain text).

 

Web Only (No Mail)


This means that you receive no messages at all from the group. This is a wise choice if you are using a work e-mail address, or if you cannot cope with the group's message volume. With this system you simply go to the group's website and read the messages that interest you there. Even if this is not your usual choice, it can be helpful to use this option if you are going on holiday.

 

So make your choices, then click the Join button at the bottom right of the page.

 


Important: Membership Questionnaire                                                           Back to Page Index


OK, so you've successfully applied to join the group. However, there is one more thing you need to do in order to join. I want to protect the group members from spammers, so whichever way you apply to join the group, you will receive a short questionnaire asking:

  1. Your first name

  2. The country where you live

  3. Your CKD cat's name and age

You need to respond to this before your membership will be approved.

 

Please don't worry about saying "the right thing." This is not a test to see if you are "good enough" for the group, everybody is welcome here, whoever they are or wherever they come from, as long as they want to help their cat. This questionnaire is basically just to reassure us that you are a real person applying to join rather than somebody trying to sell stuff and spam the group, but it also enables us to tailor our responses to your group messages e.g. if we moderators know where you live, we will not suggest treatments not available there.

 

Please note, only the two Annes and I can see your responses to these questions. The group will not know anything about you unless you choose to introduce yourself.

 

Once you respond to the questionnaire, your membership application should be approved very quickly (most people are approved within two hours or less).

 

Occasionally the questionnaire goes missing. You think we haven't sent it, and we think you haven't responded! If we haven't heard from you five days after you apply to join, we will send you a reminder. Unfortunately, we can only use the address you've used to sign up for the group, so if you've accidentally used your new yahoo e-mail address without realising it (see above), you won't see either the questionnaire or our reminder. If you don't hear from us, please simply write to us at tanyas-ckd-support-owner@yahoogroups.com and let us know. Please respond to the three questions in your response and we will either approve you (if your membership is pending) or send you a personal invitation to join the group (if your membership application has disappeared into a black hole).

 


Messages                                                                                                                                          Back to Page Index


 

Message Options: Sending Messages


You don't have to post, you can just lurk if you prefer.

 

If you wish to change the name that appears on messages you send to the group, Yahoo! explains how you can do that.

 

Starting a Thread


  1. You can simply send an e-mail to ask your question by sending it to tanyas-ckd-support@yahoogroups.com.

  2. You can go to the group website, click on Post Message in the sidebar on the left, and then write your message there.

Replying to an Existing Message


Messages sent in response to another message on the group also go directly to the group, not to the individual to whom you are replying. Therefore if you wish to respond to a message somebody else has sent, you can simply click reply on your e-mail programme. If you reply via the group website, you can click on the message in the group archives, then click reply which is top left above the message.

 

If you're changing the subject, or replying to a Digest (which have the subject line of Digest No. xxx), please change the subject line appropriately to something more meaningful. And please remove everything except that to which you are replying.

 

If you wish to reply privately to somebody, you will need to press reply, then delete the group e-mail address and paste their personal e-mail address into the To: line if you are using e-mail. If you are replying via the group website, you will see a little envelope over on the right under the person's name. If you click on that, your message will go to that person.

 

Message Content


You are welcome to discuss anything relating to care of your CKD cat. We do have a few guidelines we ask people to follow though:

  1. Please do not refer to vets or vet clinics by name for legal reasons. Just say "my vet" or "Dr J".

  2. Please do not ask for money or other donations.

  3. Since this is a very busy group, we ask that condolences are sent privately to the bereaved group member. Certain other messages should also be sent privately e.g. short "me too" messages, off topic posts etc.

  4. Please trim your posts.

Moderation of Messages


When you first join the group, your messages will be moderated for a short while. This means that they will not reach the group immediately, but will first be read and approved by one of the moderators. We do this to ensure that:

  1. you are not a spammer;

  2. you are keeping to other group guidelines (e.g. not naming your vet publicly);

  3. you are trimming your messages appropriately.

If you comply with the group guidelines sent to you when you join the group, you will be taken off moderation quickly. The main reason people stay on moderation is because they do not trim their posts. So please read up on this in the group guidelines. If you get stuck, just ask for help.

 


Leaving the Group                                                                                                Back to Page Index


 

Some people decide to leave the group. Their cat may have died, or they may find the message volume is too much, or they simply decide it's not the place for them. Leaving is fine, but if you're thinking of leaving simply because you cannot cope with message volume, please consider changing your message options first, such as by going no mail. This means your inbox will not be full, but you can still reach out for support quickly when you need it.

 

If you are leaving because your cat has died, please consider joining our sister group, Tanya's Feline Loss Support:

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-feline-loss/

 


Conclusion                                                                                                            Back to Page Index


I do hope you've decided to join Tanya's CKD Support Group! It can give you support, it can give you hope. It can make you smile too - where else would people share your thrill at hearing that your constipated cat has pooped? (Believe me, when you've been dealing with CKD for a while, things like this are real triumphs which can absolutely make your day).

 

I personally read every message sent to the group. I don't respond to every post (my priority is running this website) but I do keep an eye on things and post occasionally if I can add to what has already been said.

 


Group Quick Links                                                                                               Back to Page Index


Some of these only work if you are already a member of the group.

 

Weblinks


Group homepage:                                                 http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

Managing your membership options:                  http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/join

Messages archive                                                 http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/messages

 

E-mail Addresses


Sending a message to the group via e-mail:        tanyas-ckd-support@yahoogroups.com

Group owner e-mail address:                                 tanyas-ckd-support-owner@yahoogroups.com

Joining the group via e-mail:                                   tanyas-ckd-support-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Leaving the group via e-mail:                                  tanyas-ckd-support-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com