TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 

   

TIPS ON MEDICATING YOUR CAT

 

ON THIS PAGE:


General Pilling Tips


How to Pill a Cat


Water Chasers


Pill Pockets


Pillshooters


Gelatin Capsules (Gelcaps)


Compounded Medications


Transdermal Medications


Pillcutters


Drug Reference Guides


Medical Abbreviations


 

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WHAT IS CKD?


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Acute Kidney Injury


 

KEY ISSUES


Nausea, Vomiting, Appetite Loss and Excess Stomach Acid


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SUPPORT


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SYMPTOMS


Alphabetical List of Symptoms and Treatments


Fluid and Urinary  Imbalances (Dehydration, Overhydration and Urinary Issues)


Waste Product Regulation Imbalances (Vomiting, Appetite Loss, Excess Stomach Acid, Gastro-intestinal Problems, Mouth Ulcers Etc.)


Phosphorus and Calcium Imbalances


Miscellaneous Symptoms (Pain, Hiding Etc.)


 

DIAGNOSIS: WHAT DO ALL THE TEST RESULTS MEAN?


Blood Chemistry: Kidney Function, Potassium, Other Tests (ALT, Amylase, (Cholesterol, Etc.)


Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Complete Blood Count (CBC): Red and White Blood Cells: Anaemia and Infection


Urinalysis (Urine Tests)


Other Tests: Ultrasound, Biopsy, X-rays etc.


Renomegaly (Enlarged Kidneys)


Which Tests to Have and Frequency of Testing


Factors that Affect Test Results


Normal Ranges


International and US Measuring Systems


 

TREATMENTS


Which Treatments are Essential


Fluid and Urinary Issues (Fluid Retention, Infections, Incontinence, Proteinuria)


Waste Product Regulation (Mouth Ulcers, GI Bleeding, Antioxidants, Adsorbents, Azodyl, Astro's CRF Oil)


Phosphorus, Calcium and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Calcitriol)


Miscellaneous Treatments: Stem Cell Transplants, ACE Inhibitors - Fortekor, Steroids, Kidney Transplants)


Antibiotics and Painkillers


Holistic Treatments (Including Slippery Elm Bark)


ESAs (Aranesp, Epogen etc.) for Severe Anaemia


General Health Issues in a CKD Cat: Fleas, Arthritis, Dementia, Vaccinations


Tips on Medicating Your Cat


Obtaining Supplies Cheaply in the UK, USA and Canada


Working with Your Vet and Recordkeeping


 

DIET & NUTRITION


Nutritional Requirements of CKD Cats


The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)


What to Feed (and What to Avoid)


Persuading Your Cat to Eat


Food Data Tables


USA Canned Food Data


USA Dry Food Data


USA Cat Food Manufacturers


UK Canned Food Data


UK Dry Food Data


UK Cat Food Manufacturers


2007 Food Recall USA


 

FLUID THERAPY


Intravenous Fluids


Subcutaneous Fluids


Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe


Subcutaneous Fluids - Winning Your Vet's Support


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Home > Treatments > Tips on Medicating Your Cat

 


Overview


  • With luck, your cat is going to live a long time with CKD, so it pays to learn how to make medicating your cat as easy and stress-free as possible.

  • Many cats dislike being pilled and handled, so this page explains ways in which to make the process go more smoothly for both of you.

  • There are also links to veterinary drug reference information and how to check for possible drug interactions.

  • For information on cutting amlodipine (Norvasc or Istin, used for hypertension) into cat-sized doses, see All About Hypertension.

  • For information on how to give Azodyl, click here.


General Pilling Tips


 

To start with, if your cat only has mild CKD, you may not need to give too many treatments; but as the disease progresses, you may need various medications. I recommend always telling your cat what you are doing and why, and how it will help them feel better. It may sound strange, but some people have found that their cats tolerate treatment better after they've explained it all to them.

 

You can also choose a special word or phrase that tells them you are about to give them medication and/or fluids - the cat will soon learn what this means, and will then not be stressed when you approach him/her at other times. It can also be worth using treats after pilling so your cat does not associate pilling only with bad things.

 

If you only have to give one or two medications a day that do not have a nasty taste, I would recommend Pill Pockets. I gave my two girls their amlodipine (for hypertension) in Pill Pockets for more than three years. They both loved them, thought they were a treat and ate them willingly (and even asked for more), which meant so much less stress for them and me. I used the salmon flavour.

 

If you have to give several medications a day, or if you have to give one that tastes unpleasant, I would consider gelcaps. You can put several medications in the gelcap at once (exactly how many depends on the size of the pills and the size of the gelcap) so you only need to pill your cat once, and your cat won't have to taste the nasty pill.

 

For guidelines on using Epogen, Procrit, Eprex, NeoRecormon or Aranesp, and additional tips, see the Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents page.

 

For tips on the Sub-Q process, see How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set and How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe.

 

Measuring Small Amounts


If you need to measure small amounts, Amazon sells measuring spoon for a pinch, smidgen etc. I have these and they are fine. They also sell the Norpro brand. A member of my support group measured these spoons and said that the spoons measured as follows:

 

Tad = tsp

Dash = 1/8th tsp

Pinch =  1/16th tsp

Smidgen = 1/32nd tsp

Drop = 1/64th tsp

 

Amazon also sells a set of measuring spoons which includes a quarter and an eighth of a teaspoon for less than USD10. The same set costs 10.61 from Amazon UK.

 

Norpro Webstore sells a set of spoons that goes down as low as 1/64 of a teaspoon. A similar set is available more cheaply on Amazon.

 

Metric and American Measurements


I know it can be confusing switching between metric and American measurements. One advantage of the metric system is that measurements are uniform, so for example (if you are measuring volume) 1cc is the same as 1 ml.

 

A teaspoonful is usually considered to be the equivalent of 5ml.

 

100g is roughly 3.5 ounces.

 


Cautions                                                                                                                     Back to Page Index


 

Make sure you have been given the correct medication! Mistakes can happen. You can check some medications online (see below). If you get your next round of supplies in before you have run out, you can check to see if the pills look the same.

 

Check with your vet before deciding to crush a pill or mix it with liquid. Some medications are extended release, meaning that giving the pill in crushed form releases all the medication in one go, which might be dangerous with some medications. Other medications may be enteric-coated, meaning they are intended to reach the small intestine intact. Crushing or cutting such pills will stop this happening.

 

Never give a cat liquid medication from the front. You should always syringe liquid medication from the side of the cat's mouth.

 

If you forget to give a pill, check with your vet, but the general recommendation is to give it as soon as you remember, unless it is nearly time for the next dose, in which case you should simply give the next dose. So if you find your cat has spit up a daily morning pill six hours after you gave it, you can give it again; but if you find the pill the next day, just before you are due to give the next dose, do not double up but simply give one dose.

 


How to Pill a Cat                                                                                                       Back to Page Index


 

It is important to pill a cat correctly, because getting it wrong may cause aspiration pneumonia. Pet Place has more information on this, as does Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. You want to get the pill on the back of your cat's tongue. Some people find blowing gently on their cat's nose after placing the pill on the back of the tongue encourages the cat to swallow.

 

Never give a cat liquid medication from the front. You should always syringe liquid medication from the side of the cat's mouth.

 

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has a video on how to give a cat pills or capsules.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has a video on how to give a cat liquid medications.

Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine has a series of photos showing how to give oral medications to a cat.

Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia Support Group has a number of tips on how to make pilling less stressful for you and your cat.

Pet Place describes how to give a pill.

Ben happily receives his moistened gelcap (gelatin capsule) containing his medications.

 


The Importance of a Water Chaser


 

Recent studies have shown that cats find it much easier to swallow pills if they are given some water immediately afterwards. You may want to keep a bottle of water (the sort used for feeding kittens can be useful) and give your cat a little water every time you pill him/her, or perhaps follow pills with some watered-down syringed food. It may also help to give a little water before giving a cat a pill. Below are links to pillshooters which enable you to give water immediately after the pill. Alternatively you could give a little moist food, such as a spoonful of baby food.

 

Suspected clindamycin-associated oesophageal injury in cats: five cases (2006) Beatty JA, Swift N, Foster DJ, Barrs VR Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 8(6) pp412-9 reports on problems resulting from giving medication without food or water chasers. 

Oesophageal transit of capsules in clinically normal cats (2000) Graham JP, Lipman AH, Newell SM & Roberts GD American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(6) pp655-7 recommends feeding a small amount of food after giving medications.

Evaluation of oesophageal transit of tablets and capsules in 30 cats (2001) Westfall DS, Twedt DC, Steyn PF, Oberhauser EB & Van Cleave JW Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 15(5) pp467-70 recommends a water chaser after pilling.

Pet Education has an overview of these studies.

 


Pill Pockets and Similar Products                                                                       Back to Page Index


 

These products are designed to help you pill your cat more easily.

 

Pill Pockets are one option. These are chicken or salmon flavoured treats (45 to a pack) with a hidden pocket in which to hide your cat's medication. There is also an allergy formula available, duck and pea. A comparative study evaluating the esophageal transit time of eight healthy cats when pilled with the FlavoRx pill glide versus pill delivery treats (2010) Bennett AD, MacPhail CM, Gibbons DS & Lappin MR Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 12 p286 found that Pill Pockets work well for getting medication into a cat and reduce the risk of problems with the pill getting stuck in the oesophagus.

 

When both my cats were on medication for high blood pressure, I found Pill Pockets a godsend. They both took their medication happily, thinking it was a treat. Unfortunately a CKD cat who doesn't feel well might not eat Pill Pockets, and some cats do go off them, but if you don't use them for bitter-tasting medications (such as Pepcid) you improve your chances of ongoing acceptability. You can also give a few empty Pill Pockets, with the odd one containing the medication (always end with an empty one). My girls ate them happily every day for more than three years. Although they didn't have CKD, Indie was even happy to eat hers when she refused to eat normal food because of dental problems.

 

Some people find that, if they are only giving small amounts of medication, they only need to use half of a Pill Pocket, which means they last twice as long. I did this with my girls, since it can be hard (though not impossible) to get Pill Pockets in the UK. One member of Tanya's Support Group found that the pills stay fresher longer if they are kept in the fridge.

 

I am occasionally asked if Pill Pockets are high in phosphorus. Actually, they aren't, they have only around 0.64% phosphorus on a dry matter analysis basis, but since you only give one or two a day, I would not be too concerned if they had higher phosphorus levels.

 

Maropitant (Cerenia) should not be given in Pill Pockets or mixed with food as this may stop it being properly absorbed in the cat's body,  but some people do give them this way.

 

You might also want to try hiding the taste of your cat's pills, for example by covering them with butter, or mixing them in baby food. Don't do this with bitter tasting medication such as famotidine (Pepcid) though.

 

USA


  • One person found Pill Pockets at her local Costco pharmacy for US$4.95 a packet.

  • Vitacost sells Pill Pockets for US$4.20 per pack.

  • Flavor Doh is similar but it comes in a tub and you use enough to wrap around the pill. It is available from Vet Depot.

  • Pill Wraps are a similar product made by Vetoquinol. They are available from Entirely Pets, among others. They also go under the name of Pillmasker.

  • Goofurr is an interesting new product made from smoked salmon. Apparently most cats will eat it willingly, but you can also smear it, complete with medication, onto your cat's fur and the cat will lick it off. Shipping is quite expensive. One member of Tanya's CKD Support Group has tried it so far and found it very effective.

UK


Unfortunately Pill Pockets are not available in Europe, and the manufacturers have no plans to introduce them into this market, but there are ways to obtain them:

  • Amazon UK sells Pill Pockets for 6.49 with free shipping. I have bought these myself, ordering on a Saturday, and they arrived the following Wednesday. Unfortunately they are not always in stock, however, if you wait a few days they usually reappear. If you are desperate, they are also usually available from other sellers based in the USA, but with very high shipping costs and they may take longer to arrive. If they are not in stock at the free shipping price and you need them urgently, it can be worth checking Amazon.com too, because the sellers there may charge you less overall.

  • Vitacost in the USA sells Pill Pockets for US$4.20 per pack plus international shipping, which is calculated by weight but which costs roughly USD6.99 for small, lightweight orders and takes 7-14 days. Vitacost have local phone numbers in UK, Australia and Hong Kong. I have not used Vitacost to ship to the UK, but I used them within the USA and they were very efficient and very fast.

  • Amazon sells a liquid product called Lick-e-Lix which can be used to disguise crushed up tablets. Some people also find these helpful for encouraging their cats to eat.

  • Vet UK sells a similar product called Vivitreats. This is designed for dogs, so check the ingredients (which I haven't been able to discover) before using them.

Canada


  • Vitacost in the USA sells Pill Pockets for US$4.20 per pack plus international shipping, which is calculated by weight but which costs roughly USD6.99 for small, lightweight orders.


Using a Pillshooter                                                                                                   Back to Page Index


 

If your cat is hard to pill, it can sometimes help to use a pillshooter. Here is a picture of one we purchased from our vet for 1.25. You can buy some pillshooters in syringe form, so that you can follow the pill immediately with some water as recommended above.

 

In the USA, the following pillers are available online:

  • Valley Vet sells a clever pillshooter which crushes the pill, then adds water to dissolve the pill. You can then either give the pill orally or add the mixture to food.

  • Jeffers Pet sell the Buster pet piller which allows you to give water after the pill. Search for pet piller.

  • Amazon also sells the Buster pet piller.


Gelcaps/Gelatin Capsules                                                                                      Back to Page Index


 

If you have to give your cat several medications, it can be much easier to give them all at once by placing all the medications in an empty gelatin capsule (gelcaps in the USA) and just giving the one capsule; this also gets round the problem of foul-tasting medicines. You buy the gelatin capsules or gelcaps empty and fill them with the medications of your choice (though check with your vet about the combinations you have in mind, since not all medications can be taken with others). It may help to coat the capsule in butter before giving it to your cat: most cats like the taste of butter and it helps the gelcap go down smoothly. It is also helpful to follow any medications with water (see the importance of a water chaser).

 

Gelatin capsules come in various sizes, from 000-5, with 5 being the smallest. As a general rule, you need the smaller sizes for cats, and most people on Tanya's CKD Support Group use size 3-4, or occasionally size 2, depending upon how many medications they will be putting in the capsule and how big their cat is. If you can only buy size 0 or size 1, one member found that if she took the capsule apart and cut part off the top of one end, when it was reassembled it was smaller and easier to give.

 

Torpac sizes shows actual sizes of capsules, but is a manufacturer, not a retailer. Torpac also provides a pdf dosing guide.

Torpac dimensions gives the dimensions of the capsules.

Torpac Funnel is a little funnel to use when filling the gelcaps.

Empty Caps Company sells a number of capsule fillers starting at US$19.95 plus shipping. It also sells capules in various sizes.

 

US Suppliers


Many health food shops or compounding pharmacies sell empty gelcaps. Health food shops usually sell the NOW brand in a size 3. If they don't have them in stock, they can usually order them for you quite quickly.

  • Thomas Labs charge US$9.95 per 1000 Size 4 gel caps with free shipping ground UPS in USA. Minimum order of US$30 required. Search for capsules if necessary.

  • Thriving Pets sells a variety of gelcaps from size 0 - size 5, with sizes 3 and 4 costing US$3 for 100. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55. Shipping is free for orders over US$55 after the discount.

  • Capsuline sells size 3 beef or chicken flavoured Cat Caps. At US$23.95 for 1000 plus shipping, they are more expensive than unflavoured gelcaps, which they also sell. They also sell a capsule filling machine but it is expensive at US$80.99 and only seems to work for larger size capsules.

UK Suppliers


  • Amazon has a seller who sells 200 size 3 capsules for 2.90 plus 2.92 shipping.

     

  • Amazon UK has another seller who sells 100 size 4 capsules for 3.97 plus 4.48 shipping. Amazon UK also offers 200 capsules for just 1 more in total.

  • Capsule World sells size 3 chicken-flavoured capsules for 14,90 for 250 plus shipping.

  • Thomas Labs charge US$9.95 per 1000 Size 4 gel caps with free shipping ground UPS in USA. Minimum order of US$30 required. Search for capsules if necessary. They will ship to UK, but shipping costs will be high.

  • Always Affordable Vitamins sell 1000 size 3 gelcaps for US$8.99, and will ship to UK, charging around US$16 shipping for one or two lots and US$20 for three lots. They use airmail, which takes 4-7 days.

  • Thriving Pets sells a variety of gelcaps from size 0 - size 5, with sizes 3 and 4 costing US$3 for 100. They will ship to other countries. Shipping costs are determined by weight. I have bought gelcaps from this company with no problems. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55.

  • Capsuline sells size 3 beef or chicken flavoured Cat Caps. At US$23.95 for 1000 plus shipping, they are more expensive than unflavoured gelcaps, which they also sell. They will ship abroad, shipping cost depends upon weight (approximately US$19.95 to the UK). They also sell a capsule filling machine but it is expensive at US$80.99 and only seems to work for larger size capsules.

Canadian Suppliers


  • Capella Enterprises sells capsules in varying sizes. They cost CAN$14.70 for 1000 size 3s and CAN$13.90 for 1000 size 4s, plus tax and shipping and handling is around CAN$10.

  • Thomas Labs charge US$9.95 per 1000 Size 4 gel caps with free shipping ground UPS in USA. Minimum order of US$30 required. Search for capsules if necessary. They will ship to UK, but shipping costs will be high.

  • Always Affordable Vitamins sell 1000 size 3 gelcaps for US$8.99, and will ship to UK, charging around US$16 shipping for one or two lots and US$20 for three lots. They use airmail, which takes 4-7 days.

  • Thriving Pets sells a variety of gelcaps from size 0 - size 5, with sizes 3 and 4 costing US$3 for 100. They will ship to other countries. Shipping costs are determined by weight. I have bought gelcaps from this company with no problems. If you enter the word "tanya" (without the ") in the promotional code box, you will receive a 10% discount on orders over US$55.

  • Capsuline sells size 3 beef or chicken flavoured Cat Caps. At US$23.95 for 1000 plus shipping, they are more expensive than unflavoured gelcaps, which they also sell. They will ship abroad, shipping cost depends upon weight (approximately US$19.95 to the UK). They also sell a capsule filling machine but it is expensive at US$80.99 and only seems to work for larger size capsules.

Australia


The Melbourne Food Ingredient Depot sells 1000 size 3 capsules for AU$55. Other sizes are also available.

 


Compounded Medications                                                                                    Back to Page Index


 

In the USA and some other countries, it is possible to have medications compounded into a base of your choosing. These can be in either pill, liquid or capsule form.

 

Common flavours popular with cats are fish, chicken etc. Not all cats like the taste of compounded medications, and they are relatively expensive, but they are worth considering for hard-to-pill cats. Compounding is essential for calcitriol - it is the only way to obtain cat-sized doses, and it seems to work very well in compounded form. See below for information on finding a compounding pharmacy.

 

Compounded medications have a short shelf life, a maximum of thirty days for many medications, so check with the pharmacist and be sure not to use a product beyond its expiry date. If the product you are purchasing has a longer shelf life, it is often not much more expensive to buy 60 days worth of medication than it is to buy 30 days. 

 

Do double check with your pharmacist regarding the medication you are considering having compounded, and consider switching to pills if the compounded form does not seem to be working as well as you expected. If you use a liquid compounded medicine, be sure to shake it very well before giving it to your cat.

 

Confounding compounding is a 2009 report from the Veterinary Information Network into the pros and cons of compounded medications.

FDA calls veterinary compounding at Francks illegal is a report from April 2010 on how and why the FDA appears to be clamping down on the compounding of medications for veterinary use.

 

Compounding Pharmacies USA


  • International Academy of Compounding Pharmacies you can type in your zipcode and how far you are prepared to travel and you will be given details of suitable pharmacies. This site also provides details of compounding pharmacies in Spain, Portugal, Canada, Chile, Brazil and Australia.

  • Mar Vista Vet provides a list of some compounding pharmacies in USA.

  • Drs Foster & Smith can provide medications in a number of different forms, including flavoured mini tablets called Animelts.

Compounding Pharmacies UK


In the UK, compounding (known as "unlicensed specials") is not very common and often very expensive. However, In 2011 The Veterinary Medicines Directorate issued a register of three manufacturers who only produce specials veterinary medicines (although one of those specialises in equine medications).

 

One of the three, Summit Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Limited, sells amlodipine (for high blood pressure) in cat-sized 0.625mg doses, and perhaps they will bring out more medications in due course. You might be able to obtain some human medications (such as famotidine) from a human compounding pharmacy in cat-sized doses.

 

The Specials Laboratory does now offer veterinary compounding in the UK. It can compound famotidine (Pepcid AC) into cat-sized doses and will quote for other medications.

 


Transdermal Medications                                                                                       Back to Page Index


 

With some medications, it is possible to have them compounded into a transdermal gel, which is rubbed on the inside of the cat's ear and absorbed through the cat's skin. However, not all transdermal medications give good and/or consistent results - some people have found that the transdermal amlodipine they have used, for example, has not successfully controlled their cat's blood pressure, whereas Norvasc pills have. Plus some cats may develop sore ears where the compounded medications are applied; alternating ears may help with this. 

 

If you do use transdermal medications, you should apply them using gloves so as to avoid absorbing any of the medication through your own skin. The Veterinary Information Network has some information on this. You should also clean your cat's ears regularly so the medication can be absorbed properly.

 

Wedgewood Pet Pharmacy has more information about transdermal medications.

Advances in transdermal drug delivery (2013) Mills P Presentation to the 38th World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress discusses the mechanism of transdermal medications and factors which affect their efficacy.

Transdermal drug administration (2012) is a video by Dr DM Boothe which discusses the pros and cons of this method of administation.

Drug compounding for veterinary patients (2005) Papich MG  American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Journal 07(02) ppE281-E287, discusses the use of compounded medications, including transdermals, and states that evidence to date suggests that "absorption was incomplete, nonexistent, or highly inconsistent among cats".

Efficacy and safety of transdermal methimazole in the treatment of cats with hyperthyroidism (2004) Sartor LL, Trepanier LA, Kroll MM, Rodan I & Challoner LJ Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 18(5) pp651-5 found that transdermal methimazole (for hyperthyroidism) took longer to work than oral medications but appeared to have fewer side effects.

Hyperthyroid cats and transdermal methimazole is a helpful video which explains more about how to use transdermal medications in cats with hyperthyroidism. It includes tips on cleaning your cat's ears.

The Winn Feline Foundation is funding a study into the effectiveness of transdermal medications for cats.

 

Do double check with your pharmacist and consider switching to pills if the transdermal form of the medication does not seem to be working as well as you expected.

 


Pillcutters                                                                                                                   Back to Page Index


 

Since cats often require low dosages of medication, you often have to cut tablets in order to give them the correct dose. This is particularly hard with Pepcid AC where you have to cut the tablets into quarters. Invest in a pillcutter (Betterware sell them for about 4, or you can often find them in chemists), and apply hard, fast taps when you cut the tablet - don't try to cut it slowly or the pill will crumble.

 

For information on cutting amlodipine (Norvasc or Istin, used for hypertension) into cat-sized doses, see All About Hypertension.

.

Drugstore sells the Apex brand for US$5.99. I have one of these and really like it - it cuts well, and has a useful little container to hold the pills after you've cut them. Drugstore will ship internationally.

 


Drug Reference Guides                                                                                        Back to Page Index


 

How Drugs Work and Possible Drug Interactions


Mar Vista Vet - helpful information on various drugs, including how they work and possible interactions and side-effects.

Drug Digest - on this site you can type in the names of drugs and check for interactions. The information is human-based but can be a helpful starting point.

Drugstore offers a similar service.

Drug Digest also allows you to type in the name of a medication and see photos of it in different strengths. Click on Drug Library, Pill Images.

Pet Place has a drug library which offers information on 105 different drugs.

Pet Education also has a drug library with information on various medications.

Medical University of South Carolina allows you to choose drug shape, colour etc., to help you identify a medication.

Avoiding Adverse Drug Reactions (2001) is a paper presented by Lauren Trepanier  to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress.

Merck Veterinary Manual - has a wealth of veterinary information.

 

Books


"The Pill Book Guide to Medication for your Dog and Cat", by Kate Roby and Lenny Southam, pub. Bantam, available from Amazon for $9.99 or from Amazon UK for 8.51, can be very useful. This is an American book so not all the drugs mentioned are approved in other countries or available outside the USA, plus some of the names of the drugs may differ, but nevertheless it is a helpful book and good value for money.

 

Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook, by Don Plumb, pub. Iowa State University Press, available from Amazon is an excellent reference book. It is also available from Amazon UK.

 


Medical Abbreviations                                                                                           Back to Page Index


 

University of Illinois has information on veterinary abbreviations.

Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine has a list of veterinary abbreviations.

 

 

Back to Page Index

This page last updated: 02 December 2013

 

Links on this page last checked: 25 April 2012

 
   

*****

 

TREATING YOUR CAT WITHOUT VETERINARY ADVICE CAN BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS.

 

I have tried very hard to ensure that the information provided in this website is accurate, but I am NOT a vet, just an ordinary person who has lived through CKD with three cats. This website is for educational purposes only, and is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat any cat. Before trying any of the treatments described herein, you MUST consult a qualified veterinarian and obtain professional advice on the correct regimen for your cat and his or her particular requirements; and you should only use any treatments described here with the full knowledge and approval of your vet. No responsibility can be accepted.

 

If your cat appears to be in pain or distress, do not waste time on the internet, contact your vet immediately.

 

*****

Copyright Tanya's Feline CKD Website 2000-2012. All rights reserved.

 

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