TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 

 

DIAGNOSIS SECTION OVERVIEW:

 

WHAT DO ALL THOSE TEST RESULTS MEAN?

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What You Need to Know First


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WHAT IS CKD?


What Happens in CKD


Causes of CKD


How Bad is It?


Is There Any Hope?


Acute Kidney Injury


 

KEY ISSUES


Nausea, Vomiting, Appetite Loss and Excess Stomach Acid


Maintaining Hydration


The Importance of Phosphorus Control


All About Hypertension


All About Anaemia


All About Constipation


Potassium Imbalances


Metabolic Acidosis


Kidney Stones


 

SUPPORT


Coping with CKD


Tanya's Support Group


Success Stories


 

SYMPTOMS


Alphabetical List of Symptoms and Treatments


Fluid and Urinary  Imbalances (Dehydration, Overhydration and Urinary Issues)


Waste Product Regulation Imbalances (Vomiting, Appetite Loss, Excess Stomach Acid, Gastro-intestinal Problems, Mouth Ulcers Etc.)


Phosphorus and Calcium Imbalances


Miscellaneous Symptoms (Pain, Hiding Etc.)


 

DIAGNOSIS: WHAT DO ALL THE TEST RESULTS MEAN?


Blood Chemistry: Kidney Function, Potassium, Other Tests (ALT, Amylase, (Cholesterol, Etc.)


Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Complete Blood Count (CBC): Red and White Blood Cells: Anaemia and Infection


Urinalysis (Urine Tests)


Other Tests: Ultrasound, Biopsy, X-rays etc.


Renomegaly (Enlarged Kidneys)


Which Tests to Have and Frequency of Testing


Factors that Affect Test Results


Normal Ranges


International and US Measuring Systems


 

TREATMENTS


Which Treatments are Essential


Fluid and Urinary Issues (Fluid Retention, Infections, Incontinence, Proteinuria)


Waste Product Regulation (Mouth Ulcers, GI Bleeding, Antioxidants, Adsorbents, Azodyl, Astro's CRF Oil)


Phosphorus, Calcium and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Calcitriol)


Miscellaneous Treatments: Stem Cell Transplants, ACE Inhibitors - Fortekor, Steroids, Kidney Transplants)


Antibiotics and Painkillers


Holistic Treatments (Including Slippery Elm Bark)


ESAs (Aranesp, Epogen etc.) for Severe Anaemia


General Health Issues in a CKD Cat: Fleas, Arthritis, Dementia, Vaccinations


Tips on Medicating Your Cat


Obtaining Supplies Cheaply in the UK, USA and Canada


Working with Your Vet and Recordkeeping


 

DIET & NUTRITION


Nutritional Requirements of CKD Cats


The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)


What to Feed (and What to Avoid)


Persuading Your Cat to Eat


Food Data Tables


USA Canned Food Data


USA Dry Food Data


USA Cat Food Manufacturers


UK Canned Food Data


UK Dry Food Data


UK Cat Food Manufacturers


2007 Food Recall USA


 

FLUID THERAPY


Intravenous Fluids


Subcutaneous Fluids


Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe


Subcutaneous Fluids - Winning Your Vet's Support


Dialysis


 

RELATED DISEASES


Heart Problems


Hyperthyroidism


Diabetes


Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)


Pancreatitis


Dental Problems


Anaesthesia


 

OBTAINING SUPPLIES CHEAPLY


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SAYING GOODBYE


The Final Hours


Other People's Losses


Coping with Your Loss


 

MISCELLANEOUS


Early Detection


Prevention


Research


Canine Kidney Disease


Other Illnesses (Cancer, Liver) and Behavioural Problems


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SITEOWNER (HELEN)


My Three CKD Cats: Tanya, Thomas and Ollie


My Multi Ailment Cat, Harpsie


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Home > Diagnosis

 


Overview


  • Some vets will tell you your cat has CKD based on the symptoms which your cat is exhibiting.

  • They may well be right, but many of the symptoms of CKD, such as increased thirst and weight-loss, can also be symptoms of other diseases. Therefore, to be completely sure you are dealing with CKD, you really need to have tests run to confirm the diagnosis.

  • The various test results will also tell you and your vet where any imbalances exist, which will help you to decide on the best treatments. 

  • Most vets use the blood chemistry panel to check kidney function.

  • They may then do additional tests to look for infections or anaemia or other problems.

This section contains pages covering the following topics:

 


Which Tests to Have, and How Often                                                                          Go to page


 

This page covers:

  • Information about the various tests available and which to have.

  • Frequency of testing and what to do if your cat hates the vet.


Normal Ranges, and Factors Affecting Test Results                                               Go to page


 

This page covers:

  • Information about factors which may affect test results (fasting, lipaemia, clumping platelets or haemolysis).

  • Typical normal ranges for tests, and veterinary links about test results.

  • How to convert international values to US values.


Blood Chemistry Panel                                                                                                  Go to page


 

This is a blood test, and is the most common test run on cats suspected of having CKD. This page covers:

  • Kidney function: BUN (urea) and creatinine, BUN:creatinine ratio, azotaemia and uraemia.

  • Potassium and sodium

  • Magnesium

  • Total protein (albumin and globulin)

  • Miscellaneous tests: CK, cholesterol, glucose, amylase, ALT


Complete Blood Count (CBC) for Anaemia and Infection or Inflammation          Go to page


 

This is also a type of blood test, and is commonly run on cats who are suspected to be anaemic or to have an infection. This page covers:

  • Red Blood Cells - see the Anaemia page for more detailed information

  • White Blood Cells:

    • Neutrophils

    • Eosonophils

    • Lymphocytes

    • Monocytes


Urinalysis (Urine Tests)                                                                                                 Go to page


 

Sometimes vets also test your cat's urine. The USG test can be used to help confirm the CKD diagnosis. Urine tests may also be performed to check for specific problems, e.g. urinary tract infections. This page covers:

  • Obtaining urine samples

  • Urine specific gravity (USG)

  • Osmolality

  • Haematuria (blood in urine)

  • Proteinuria

  • Urine protein:creatinine ratio

  • Urine pH

  • Glucose

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney infections


Minerals (Phosphorus and Calcium)                                                                                Go to page


 

These are measured in a blood test. Phosphorus and calcium are commonly checked in a routine blood test but PTH (and ionised calcium) can only be checked via specialised tests. This page covers:

  • Phosphorus

  • Calcium (including ionised calcium)

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism


Other Tests:                                                                                                                     Go to page


 

There are a number of other tests which may be performed. This page covers:

  • Faecal occult blood test (for gastro-intestinal bleeding)

  • Palpation

  • Oral check (for dental problems and mouth ulcers)

  • Ultrasound

  • X-rays

  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

  • Planar renal scintigraphy

  • Biopsy

  • Renomegaly (enlarged kidneys)

 

 

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This page last updated: 02 December 2011