TANYA'S

COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO

FELINE CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

 
   

EARLY DETECTION

 

ON THIS PAGE:


Regular Examinations, Including Annual Bloodwork


Urine Specific Gravity (USG)


Proteinuria


Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)


 

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Tanya's CKD Support Group Today

 

HOME


Site Overview


What You Need to Know First


Alphabetical Index


Glossary


Research Participation Opportunities


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Tanya's CKD Support Group Today

 

WHAT IS CKD?


What Happens in CKD?


Causes of CKD


How Bad is It?


Is There Any Hope?


Acute Kidney Injury


 

KEY ISSUES


Nausea, Vomiting, Appetite Loss and Excess Stomach Acid


Maintaining Hydration


The Importance of Phosphorus Control


All About Hypertension


All About Anaemia


All About Constipation


Potassium Imbalances


Metabolic Acidosis


Kidney Stones


 

SUPPORT


Coping with CKD


Tanya's Support Group


Success Stories


 

SYMPTOMS


Alphabetical List of Symptoms and Treatments


Fluid and Urinary  Imbalances (Dehydration, Overhydration and Urinary Issues)


Waste Product Regulation Imbalances (Vomiting, Appetite Loss, Excess Stomach Acid, Gastro-intestinal Problems, Mouth Ulcers Etc.)


Phosphorus and Calcium Imbalances


Miscellaneous Symptoms (Pain, Hiding Etc.)


 

DIAGNOSIS: WHAT DO ALL THE TEST RESULTS MEAN?


Blood Chemistry: Kidney Function, Potassium, Other Tests (ALT, Amylase, (Cholesterol, Etc.)


Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism


Complete Blood Count (CBC): Red and White Blood Cells: Anaemia and Infection


Urinalysis (Urine Tests)


Other Tests: Ultrasound, Biopsy, X-rays etc.


Renomegaly (Enlarged Kidneys)


Which Tests to Have and Frequency of Testing


Factors that Affect Test Results


Normal Ranges


International and US Measuring Systems


 

TREATMENTS


Which Treatments are Essential


Fluid and Urinary Issues (Fluid Retention, Infections, Incontinence, Proteinuria)


Waste Product Regulation (Mouth Ulcers, GI Bleeding, Antioxidants, Adsorbents, Azodyl, Astro's CRF Oil)


Phosphorus, Calcium and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Calcitriol)


Miscellaneous Treatments: Stem Cell Transplants, ACE Inhibitors - Fortekor, Steroids, Kidney Transplants)


Antibiotics and Painkillers


Holistic Treatments (Including Slippery Elm Bark)


ESAs (Aranesp, Epogen etc.) for Severe Anaemia


General Health Issues in a CKD Cat: Fleas, Arthritis, Dementia, Vaccinations


Tips on Medicating Your Cat


Obtaining Supplies Cheaply in the UK, USA and Canada


Working with Your Vet and Recordkeeping


 

DIET & NUTRITION


Nutritional Requirements of CKD Cats


The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)


What to Feed (and What to Avoid)


Persuading Your Cat to Eat


Food Data Tables


USA Canned Food Data


USA Dry Food Data


USA Cat Food Manufacturers


UK Canned Food Data


UK Dry Food Data


UK Cat Food Manufacturers


2007 Food Recall USA


 

FLUID THERAPY


Intravenous Fluids


Subcutaneous Fluids


Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set


How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe


Subcutaneous Fluids - Winning Your Vet's Support


Dialysis


 

RELATED DISEASES


Heart Problems


Hyperthyroidism


Diabetes


Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)


Pancreatitis


Dental Problems


Anaesthesia


 

OBTAINING SUPPLIES CHEAPLY


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Canada


 

SAYING GOODBYE


The Final Hours


Other People's Losses


Coping with Your Loss


 

MISCELLANEOUS


Early Detection


Prevention


Research


Canine Kidney Disease


Other Illnesses (Cancer, Liver) and Behavioural Problems


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SITEOWNER (HELEN)


My Three CKD Cats: Tanya, Thomas and Ollie


My Multi Ailment Cat, Harpsie


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Home > What is CKD? > Early Detection

 


Overview


  • As discussed on the What Happens in CKD? page, it is normally not possible to detect CKD until the cat has already lost 66-75% of his or her kidney function.

  • It is therefore highly unlikely that you could have prevented your cat developing CKD; so please don't feel guilty.

  • This page discusses some areas of investigation into ways in which earlier detection may be possible.

  • It is not currently possible to prevent CKD; but the earlier it is diagnosed, the better your chances of helping your cat.

Assessment of renal function: what can be done in practice (2002) is a very interesting paper about the various methods of detecting CKD presented to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress 2002 by Dr Jonathan Elliott.

 


Regular Examinations                                                                                                               Back to Page Index


 

Although occasionally younger cats get CKD, it tends to be a disease of the older cat. I therefore make it a rule to take any of my cats who are over the age of eight to the vet each year for a check up. The check up includes a physical examination and blood tests (including testing for hyperthyroidism) and a blood pressure check. Once cats reach the age of ten or twelve, you might want to consider checks every six months.

 

I would also recommend weighing your cat regularly in order to spot any weight loss early, which may indicate CKD or other health problems such as hyperactive thyroid.

 

The American Association of Feline Practitioners provides guidelines on how to be proactive in caring for a senior cat. It recommends (page 3) that blood tests, urinalysis and a blood pressure check should be performed every year in cats starting between the ages of 7 and 11 with no clinical signs of disease.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has information on what to expect as a cat ages.

Antech Diagnostics discusses the results of a study at a Los Angeles veterinary hospital into the benefits of bloodwork and other tests performed in cats over the age of 7 who were apparently healthy.

 


Urine Specific Gravity                                                                                          Back to Page Index


 

Measuring urine specific gravity may indicate loss of concentrating ability before anything shows in bloodwork. However, a cat may have dilute urine for other reasons, such as diabetes, so this is only a guide, not a definitive method of diagnosis.

 


Proteinuria                                                                                                             Back to Page Index


 

The International Renal Interest Society uses protein in the urine as a risk factor for the development of CKD, and as a factor to determine the severity of the CKD.

 

Evaluation of predictors of the development of azotaemia in cats (2009) Jepson RE, Brodbelt D, Vallance C, Syme HM, Elliott J. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 23(4) pp806-13 reports on a group of older cats who were monitored to see if they developed CKD. The study concludes that "Proteinuria at presentation was significantly associated with development of azotemia although causal association cannot be inferred."

 

Protein in the urine may have causes other than CKD. There is more information about proteinuria on the Urinalysis page.

 

If you know your cat has proteinuria early on, you can take steps to control it, see Treatments.

 

The following tests may be helpful in assessing the presence of proteinuria:

Idexx Urine P:C Ratio


Idexx Laboratories is now offering a new test in a number of different countries which can calculate the protein:creatinine ratio.

 

How to integrate UPC ratios into your practice and uncover early renal disease is a video presentation about the new Idexx test (this lasts an hour).

 

E.R.D.-HealthScreen Urine Test                                                                                           


 

The E.R.D.-HealthScreen Urine Test is another test which may assist with detecting CKD in its early stages by detecting low levels of protein (microalbuminuria) in the cat's urine. The manufacturer claims that the test is able to detect cats at risk of CKD at a much earlier stage than other tests, i.e. when there is as little as 25% damage, compared to the minimum 65% damage that occurs before anything shows up in bloodwork.

 

The test is only available through your vet, who has to run the test in-house. If your vet does not have any in stock and you are in Europe, s/he can contact Heska's European distributors to obtain the test. Heska also has a list on its website of its distributors in other parts of the world.

 

In the USA it should not cost more than US$20-30 if performed in addition to other tests (Antech charges much less); it may cost slightly more if run in isolation. Unfortunately, it appears to be much more expensive in Europe, costing up to 200, though many vets will charge less.

 

The test is non-invasive, requiring only a urine sample, with results available in-house in less than five minutes. If the test is positive, further investigations should be performed, e.g. for high blood pressure. The test may also be positive if certain inflammatory diseases such as IBD or dental disease are also present, or if the cat has certain other conditions such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

 

Drugs has some information about the test.

 


Glomerular Filtration Rate                                                                                  Back to Page Index


 

Measuring the Glomerular Filtration Rate (see What Happens in CKD) can be a useful tool, and in fact the International Renal Insufficiency Society states that GFR is the "most accurate measure available for assessment of renal function." IRIS believes that eventually GFR will be the measure by which CKD can be categorised, although it will take some time to determine appropriate reference ranges.

 

The main problem with measuring GFR is that it is quite cumbersome, which is why few vets are able to do it.

 

Managing chronic kidney disease: 10 common questions (2012) Brown SA Presentation to the 83rd FVMA Annual Conference discusses more about GFR and the various ways of measuring it.

 

The following tests may be helpful in assessing GFR:

Iohexol Clearance Test (Plasma Iohexol Clearance Test)


This test uses iohexol, an iodinated radiographic contrast medium. Basically, the test measures how long it takes to clear a measured amount of iohexol from the kidneys, and this is then used to calculate the GFR. This test, sometimes referred to as the Plasma Iohexol Clearance test (PIC) is highly specialised and only available at a limited number of places in USA such as the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory at Michigan State University; I am not aware that the test is commercially available in Europe. This test may be particularly helpful  before opting for one of the more permanent methods of treating hyperthyroidism.

 

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate via 2- and 4-sample plasma clearance of iohexol and creatinine in clinically normal cats (2009) Heiene R, Reynolds BS, Bexfield NH, Larsen S & Gerritsen RJ American Journal of Veterinary Research 70(2) pp176-85 is a study into determining appropriate reference ranges. It found that the weight of the cat is a factor.

Michigan State University Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health has more information on this test (Volume 14 (1997) Number 3).

Current concepts for the management of chronic renal failure in the dog and cat - early diagnosis and supportive care (2005) is a presentation by Dr S Sanderson to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress which mentions this test.

 

Inulin Clearance Test


Like the iohexol clearance test, the inulin clearance test measures how long it takes the kidneys to clear a measured amount of a particular substance, in this case inulin. This test only requires a single IV injection of inulin, followed by the taking of a blood sample three hours later. The test is already commercially available in Germany. This test may be particularly helpful  before opting for one of the more permanent methods of treating hyperthyroidism.

 

Single-injection inulin clearance for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate in cats (2003) Haller M, Rohner K, Muller W, Reutter F, Binder H, Estelberger W, Arnold P Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 5 (3) pp175-81 compared the inulin test to the iohexol clearance test and concluded that "the inulin clearance test is a valuable tool for the assessment of renal function in daily practice".

Alomed in Germany is offering this test.

 

 

 

Back to Page Index

This page last updated: 24 June 2012

Links on this page last checked: 27 March 2012

 

 

The group is hosted on yahoo!groups, part of yahoo. It has its own address separate from Tanya's website. You can either click here or copy and paste this link into your browser:

 

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

 

If you are already familiar with yahoo!groups, just click on the link and apply to join (and don't forget to complete the short questionnaire you'll be sent), but if you'd like to know more about how the group works, read on.

 

I own and run the group, but I am ably assisted by two moderators, Anne V and Anne A. They help with membership queries, approve messages, and do lots of boring admin stuff behind the scenes to help the group run smoothly for the members.

 

The group has various sections, including a photos section and a realtime chat function but for most people the most important part of the group is its message section. Basically, a member who wants support, vet recommendations, or to hear how others are coping with a particular problem, sends a message to the rest of the group. Other members then respond if they can. All messages sent to the group are stored in a message archive which members can search if they wish.

 

The group is private, i.e. messages sent to it are only visible to members, so people are not posting to the internet at large. The names of group members are also private, so nobody will know you are a member unless you choose to send messages to the group.

 


Joining the Group                                                                                                                        Back to Page Index


 

There are two ways to join the group, via the group's website or via e-mail:

 

How to Join the Group via E-mail


Just send an e-mail to

tanyas-ckd-support-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

You should then receive an e-mail in response asking you to confirm that you definitely want to join the group. Just click Reply and send.

 

If you join the group via e-mail, you will be able to send and receive e-mails to the group, but you will not be able to access the group website and read the message archives or look at the photos. If you wish to do that, you will need to set up a yahoo! ID by visiting the group website.

 

How to Join the Group via the Web


You can visit the group's homepage and follow the instructions. If you do this, yahoo!groups will help you set up your yahoo! ID, which gives you access to the group message archive etc. A yahoo! ID is not the same thing as an e-mail address.

 

Here are the steps to follow. Don't worry, this all sounds far worse than it is! You should find that in practice it all works more smoothly than it sounds when you're trying to explain it in writing:

 

Existing yahoo! ID

  1. Go to the group website: http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

  2. Click on the Join this Group button and you'll be taken to a Sign In to Yahoo! page.

  3. Sign in and link Tanya's Support Group to your existing account.

  4. Choose the e-mail address you wish to use for the group (see below).

  5. There is a little box for you to tell me why you would like to join the group. You don't need to be inventive or fancy, it's not a competition, it's just an extra check by yahoo!groups to keep spammers out.

  6. Choose your message delivery options (see below).

  7. Scroll down and click on the blue Join button at the bottom right of the page.

New yahoo! ID

  1. Go to the group website: http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

  2. Click on the Join this Group button and you'll be taken to a Sign In to Yahoo! page.

  3. Scroll down a little and click on the Create New Account button.

  4. On the next page you can create your new account. Some people are somewhat inventive in their responses, but in such cases it is important to remember what responses have been given in case the information is needed later to access the account. I can't see any of this stuff, it's entirely private between you and yahoo!groups, so I cannot help in case of later queries. 

  5. Once the account is successfully set up, you'll be taken to a Congratulations! page.

  6. Before you click on the Continue button on the Congratulations! page, untick the box that makes yahoo! your homepage (unless that is what you want).

  7. Also click on the Edit Marketing Preferences link below the Continue button. This takes you to another page where they helpfully opt you in to everything, so go through and set it as you wish.

  8. Then on the same separate page click on Account Info at the top of the page. You will be asked for your password again and taken to the Account Info page. Click on Profile and opt out of the various choices as you wish. The key thing is, you do have choices here, you can make things as public or private as you wish.

  9. Now click on the Continue button on the original page. You will be taken back to the group page to choose your membership settings.

  10. Choose the e-mail address you wish to use for the group (see below).

  11. There is a little box for you to tell me why you would like to join the group. You don't need to be inventive or fancy, it's not a competition, it's just an extra check by yahoo!groups to keep spammers out.

  12. Choose your message delivery options (see below).

  13. Scroll down and click on the blue Join button at the bottom right of the page.


Membership Settings                                                                                          Back to Page Index


 

There are various choices you need to make regarding your membership of the group. The most important are which e-mail address to use, and which way you read messages sent to the group by group members.

 

Membership Settings: Your E-mail Address


You need to decide which e-mail address you wish to use for the group. If you have created a yahoo! ID, yahoo!groups will normally have also set up a free yahoo! e-mail account for you based on your new yahoo ID. You can use this e-mail address to access the group if you wish, but it's not essential, you can use any e-mail address you wish. Since yahoo! is now scanning messages for advertising purposes (similar to gmail), I would recommend not using yahoo! e-mail if possible (though it would probably be better than using your work address for private stuff).

 

If you do not want to use your free yahoo! e-mail address, click on Add e-mail address to add a different one. Be aware, if you don't add a new address here, yahoo! will use the yahoo! e-mail address as a default address. So if you don't receive the membership questionnaire, it may well be because it's gone to your new yahoo! e-mail address.

 

If you ever wish to change the e-mail address you are using for the group, you can do that here:

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/join

 

Membership Settings: Message Delivery


This sets up how you will access messages that are sent to the group.

 

This is a pretty active group. If you're looking after your CKD cat, you want support but you probably don't want a full inbox all the time. To help you manage this issue, you have three options for messages, and you can switch between them all as you wish:

  1. Individual E-mails

  2. Daily Digest

  3. Web Only (No e-mail)

Individual E-mails


This is the default setting. If you apply to join the group via e-mail, you will end up with this setting. If you apply to join the group via the group's webpage, if you don't choose one of the other settings, this is the one you will end up with.

 

This setting means that as soon as somebody sends a message to the group, it is sent directly to your inbox. It's a good choice if you might want to know immediately if somebody has responded to you, or if you would like to store some of the group messages for your reference. It's also good for being able to quickly delete messages which don't interest you.

 

The downside is that this is a busy group, averaging 50-100 group messages each day, so your inbox can quickly get full. One solution is to create a folder to use for group messages. All messages sent to the group have a tag in the subject line [tanya-crf] so you can filter all messages from the group to a new folder using this tag if you wish.

 

With both individual e-mail and message digest options, you can also choose the format of messages sent to you (Display Format), either Fully Featured (html, pretty colours etc.) or Traditional (plain text).

 

Message Digest


This means that you receive e-mails from the group, but yahoo!groups waits until there are about 25 messages available and sends them to you all in one go. With this option, you would therefore only receive 2-4 e-mails a day from the group, but it means you have to wait for responses (though you can still check on the group website for messages) and it can be more difficult to find what you are looking for within each digest.

 

With both individual e-mail and message digest options, you can also choose the format of messages sent to you (Display Format), either Fully Featured (html, pretty colours etc.) or Traditional (plain text).

 

Web Only (No Mail)


This means that you receive no messages at all from the group. This is a wise choice if you are using a work e-mail address, or if you cannot cope with the group's message volume. With this system you simply go to the group's website and read the messages that interest you there. Even if this is not your usual choice, it can be helpful to use this option if you are going on holiday.

 

So make your choices, then click the Join button at the bottom right of the page.

 


Important: Membership Questionnaire                                                           Back to Page Index


OK, so you've successfully applied to join the group. However, there is one more thing you need to do in order to join. I want to protect the group members from spammers, so whichever way you apply to join the group, you will receive a short questionnaire asking:

  1. Your first name

  2. The country where you live

  3. Your CKD cat's name and age

You need to respond to this before your membership will be approved.

 

Please don't worry about saying "the right thing." This is not a test to see if you are "good enough" for the group, everybody is welcome here, whoever they are or wherever they come from, as long as they want to help their cat. This questionnaire is basically just to reassure us that you are a real person applying to join rather than somebody trying to sell stuff and spam the group, but it also enables us to tailor our responses to your group messages e.g. if we moderators know where you live, we will not suggest treatments not available there.

 

Please note, only the two Annes and I can see your responses to these questions. The group will not know anything about you unless you choose to introduce yourself.

 

Once you respond to the questionnaire, your membership application should be approved very quickly (most people are approved within two hours or less).

 

Occasionally the questionnaire goes missing. You think we haven't sent it, and we think you haven't responded! If we haven't heard from you five days after you apply to join, we will send you a reminder. Unfortunately, we can only use the address you've used to sign up for the group, so if you've accidentally used your new yahoo e-mail address without realising it (see above), you won't see either the questionnaire or our reminder. If you don't hear from us, please simply write to us at tanyas-ckd-support-owner@yahoogroups.com and let us know. Please respond to the three questions in your response and we will either approve you (if your membership is pending) or send you a personal invitation to join the group (if your membership application has disappeared into a black hole).

 


Messages                                                                                                                                          Back to Page Index


 

Message Options: Sending Messages


You don't have to post, you can just lurk if you prefer.

 

If you wish to change the name that appears on messages you send to the group, Yahoo! explains how you can do that.

 

Starting a Thread


  1. You can simply send an e-mail to ask your question by sending it to tanyas-ckd-support@yahoogroups.com.

  2. You can go to the group website, click on Post Message in the sidebar on the left, and then write your message there.

Replying to an Existing Message


Messages sent in response to another message on the group also go directly to the group, not to the individual to whom you are replying. Therefore if you wish to respond to a message somebody else has sent, you can simply click reply on your e-mail programme. If you reply via the group website, you can click on the message in the group archives, then click reply which is top left above the message.

 

If you're changing the subject, or replying to a Digest (which have the subject line of Digest No. xxx), please change the subject line appropriately to something more meaningful. And please remove everything except that to which you are replying.

 

If you wish to reply privately to somebody, you will need to press reply, then delete the group e-mail address and paste their personal e-mail address into the To: line if you are using e-mail. If you are replying via the group website, you will see a little envelope over on the right under the person's name. If you click on that, your message will go to that person.

 

Message Content


You are welcome to discuss anything relating to care of your CKD cat. We do have a few guidelines we ask people to follow though:

  1. Please do not refer to vets or vet clinics by name for legal reasons. Just say "my vet" or "Dr J".

  2. Please do not ask for money or other donations.

  3. Since this is a very busy group, we ask that condolences are sent privately to the bereaved group member. Certain other messages should also be sent privately e.g. short "me too" messages, off topic posts etc.

  4. Please trim your posts.

Moderation of Messages


When you first join the group, your messages will be moderated for a short while. This means that they will not reach the group immediately, but will first be read and approved by one of the moderators. We do this to ensure that:

  1. you are not a spammer;

  2. you are keeping to other group guidelines (e.g. not naming your vet publicly);

  3. you are trimming your messages appropriately.

If you comply with the group guidelines sent to you when you join the group, you will be taken off moderation quickly. The main reason people stay on moderation is because they do not trim their posts. So please read up on this in the group guidelines. If you get stuck, just ask for help.

 


Leaving the Group                                                                                                Back to Page Index


 

Some people decide to leave the group. Their cat may have died, or they may find the message volume is too much, or they simply decide it's not the place for them. Leaving is fine, but if you're thinking of leaving simply because you cannot cope with message volume, please consider changing your message options first, such as by going no mail. This means your inbox will not be full, but you can still reach out for support quickly when you need it.

 

If you are leaving because your cat has died, please consider joining our sister group, Tanya's Feline Loss Support:

http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-feline-loss/

 


Conclusion                                                                                                            Back to Page Index


I do hope you've decided to join Tanya's CKD Support Group! It can give you support, it can give you hope. It can make you smile too - where else would people share your thrill at hearing that your constipated cat has pooped? (Believe me, when you've been dealing with CKD for a while, things like this are real triumphs which can absolutely make your day).

 

I personally read every message sent to the group. I don't respond to every post (my priority is running this website) but I do keep an eye on things and post occasionally if I can add to what has already been said.

 


Group Quick Links                                                                                               Back to Page Index


Some of these only work if you are already a member of the group.

 

Weblinks


Group homepage:                                                 http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/

Managing your membership options:                  http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/join

Messages archive                                                 http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/tanyas-ckd-support/messages

 

E-mail Addresses


Sending a message to the group via e-mail:        tanyas-ckd-support@yahoogroups.com

Group owner e-mail address:                                 tanyas-ckd-support-owner@yahoogroups.com

Joining the group via e-mail:                                   tanyas-ckd-support-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Leaving the group via e-mail:                                  tanyas-ckd-support-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com