Benefits of Oral Fluid Intake

Oral Fluid Requirements

Fluid Choices

Tips on Increasing Oral Fluid Intake (Including Water Fountains)

If Your Cat Stops Drinking

Feeding Tubes




Site Overview

Just Diagnosed? What You Need to Know First

Search This Site



What Happens in CKD

Causes of CKD

How Bad is It?

Is There Any Hope?

Acute Kidney Injury



Phosphorus Control


(High Blood Pressure)



Potassium Imbalances

Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infections) and Urinary Tract Infections NEW

Metabolic Acidosis

Kidney Stones



Nausea, Vomiting, Appetite Loss and Excess Stomach Acid

Maintaining Hydration

The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)




Ways of Assessing Food Content, Including What is Dry Matter Analysis

How to Use the Food Data Tables

USA Canned Food Data

USA Dry Food Data

USA Cat Food Brands: Helpfulness Ratings

USA Cat Food Brands: Contact Details

USA Food Data Book

UK Canned Food Data

UK Dry Food Data

UK Cat Food Brands: Helpfulness Ratings

UK Cat Food Brands:

Contact Details



Coping with CKD

Tanya's Support Group

Success Stories



Important: Crashing

Alphabetical List of Symptoms and Treatments

Fluid and Urinary  Imbalances (Dehydration, Overhydration and Urinary Issues)

Waste Product Regulation Imbalances (Vomiting, Appetite Loss, Excess Stomach Acid, Gastro-intestinal Problems, Mouth Ulcers Etc.)

Phosphorus and Calcium Imbalances

Miscellaneous Symptoms (Pain, Hiding Etc.)



Early Detection

Blood Chemistry: Kidney Function, Potassium, Other Tests (ALT, Amylase, (Cholesterol, Etc.)

Calcium, Phosphorus, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Complete Blood Count (CBC): Red and White Blood Cells: Anaemia and Infection

Urinalysis (Urine Tests)

Other Tests: Ultrasound, Biopsy, X-rays etc.

Renomegaly (Enlarged Kidneys)

Which Tests to Have and Frequency of Testing

Factors that Affect Test Results

Normal Ranges

International and US Measuring Systems



Which Treatments are Essential

Fluid and Urinary Issues (Fluid Retention, Infections, Incontinence, Proteinuria)

Waste Product Regulation (Mouth Ulcers, GI Bleeding, Antioxidants, Adsorbents, Azodyl, Astro's CRF Oil)

Phosphorus, Calcium and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Calcitriol)

Phosphorus Binders

Steroids, Stem Cell Transplants and Kidney Transplants

Antibiotics and Painkillers

Holistic Treatments (Including Slippery Elm Bark)

ESAs (Aranesp, Epogen etc.) for Severe Anaemia

General Health Issues in a CKD Cat: Fleas, Arthritis, Dementia, Vaccinations

Tips on Medicating Your Cat

Obtaining Supplies Cheaply in the UK, USA and Canada

Working with Your Vet and Recordkeeping



Nutritional Requirements of CKD Cats

The B Vitamins (Including Methylcobalamin)

What to Feed (and What to Avoid)

Persuading Your Cat to Eat

2007 Food Recall USA



Oral Fluids

Intravenous Fluids

Subcutaneous Fluids

Tips on Giving Subcutaneous Fluids

How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Giving Set

How to Give Subcutaneous Fluids with a Syringe

Subcutaneous Fluids - Winning Your Vet's Support




Heart Problems



Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)


Dental Problems





USA Online

USA Local (Fluids)




The Final Hours

Other People's Losses

Coping with Your Loss




Feline CKD Research, Including Participation Opportunities

CKD Research in Other Species

Share This Site: A Notice for Your Vet's Bulletin Board or Your Local Pet Shop

Canine Kidney Disease

Other Illnesses (Cancer, Liver) and Behavioural Problems

Diese Webseite auf Deutsch



My Three CKD Cats: Tanya, Thomas and Ollie

My Multi Ailment Cat, Harpsie

Find Me on Facebook

Follow Me on Twitter

Contact Me

Home > Fluid Therapy > Oral Fluid Therapy



  • Oral fluids are the ideal way to maintain hydration.

  • Eventually CKD cats may need additional treatments, such as intravenous or subcutaneous fluids.

  • This page has tips on helping your cat maintain his or her oral fluid intake.

Benefits of Oral Fluid Intake


There is a saying in medicine, if the gut works, use it. Obviously this is particularly true of maintaining hydration, where it is a lot easier and less stressful for everyone if a cat takes in sufficient fluids orally and thus avoids the need for more proactive fluid management such as intravenous or subcutaneous fluids. This is also the most natural way for cats to take in fluids.


When we talk about oral fluid intake, we are not only referring to drinking. Cats obtain quite a lot of their fluid needs from the food they eat. Canned food contains about 80% water, so it is a good choice for a CKD cat.


Oral Fluid Requirements


In order to maintain hydration, a cat generally needs around 24-30ml of water per pound bodyweight per day (though this amount will be affected by activity levels and climate). This means that a 10lb (4.5kg) cat would require 240-300ml of water a day (a cat in congestive heart failure may need less). Daily water requirements and needs for cats (2011) Peterson ME says "A normal catís daily water requirement ranges from 5 to 10 fluid ounces per day (or an average of 60 ml/kg/day)."


The cat does not need to obtain this by drinking alone. If you are feeding canned food, which contains a lot of water, that will make a sizeable contribution to total intake.


Unfortunately, in older cats generally there can be a reduced thirst response, as mentioned by Dr E Ward in Senior cat care: special considerations for cats (2008). This may be the case even though CKD cats tend to need more fluids because of what they lose through the increased urination caused by CKD.


Never restrict a CKD cat's access to water (unless your vet has advised you to do so for a brief period prior to surgery).


Fluid Choices


Some people give their cat bottled water. The taste of chlorine in normal tap water doesn't taste too good to cats, so this is worth considering but not essential.


Some people like to use distilled water, though I can't say I'm a fan. Some types of distilled water have a low pH level, and the extra acidity in these products is not appropriate for CKD cats, who tend towards acidity anyway. Distilled water may also cause potassium imbalances.


You also do not want to give alkalinised water, because this may increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones.


My cats' favourite water is rain water. Normally though we give them filtered water, at room temperature, and when we were using a bowl, we changed it several times a day (such frequent changes are not necessary with water fountains).


I would not recommend syringing the bags of fluid used for sub-Qs into your cat's mouth. Your cat is unlikely to accept these fluids orally because they taste salty and apparently rather oily. It is also far more expensive than giving ordinary water.


You should never try to inject ordinary water into your cat because it is not the correct composition for injection, you should only use fluids approved for this purpose and prescribed by your vet.


Tips on Increasing Oral Fluid Intake


Cats are not known for drinking a lot, a legacy of their desert heritage. Therefore the more you can do to encourage them to increase their oral fluid intake, the better.


Cats in the wild do not eat and drink in the same place. Therefore it is better not to put the water bowl next to the food bowl. Some cats don't like a narrow bowl where their whiskers touch the side, so experiment, and also consider using a water fountain.


Some people find placing ice cubes made from low sodium tuna water in their cat's water bowl encourages their cat to drink more. You may also wish to give your cat homemade chicken broth to drink.


With a CKD cat, it makes a lot of sense to have more than one water source. We used to just have one bowl of water out but once Thomas was diagnosed we switched to three, including one placed upstairs so Thomas didn't have to go too far for a drink in the night.


You can also add water to your cat's food. One teaspoon of water is 5 ml, so if you can add 10 tsp a day to your cat's food, you are increasing fluid intake nicely. However, you do not want to overdo it, so your cat's calorie and nutrient intake reduces, so start slowly and make sure your cat still eats sufficient food.


If your cat is in mid-stage CKD and needs help with hydration but your vet refuses to allow you to give sub-Qs, you could consider syringing water into your cat's mouth instead. Discuss this possibility with your vet. You have to be careful because cats can only swallow a tiny amount at a time, and you should always syringe from the side of the mouth, never from the front - see syringe feeding for more information. Some people also use a water dropper. Don't give too much because if you do, your cat may feel full and then not eat enough.


Effects of feeding frequency on water intake in cats (2005) Kirschvink N, Lhoest E., Leemans J. Delvaux F, Istasse L, Gustin P, Diez M Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 19 p476 found that cats fed more frequently increased their fluid intake. Frequent feeding can also help with excess stomach acid.


Hill's Pet Tails Monthly Newsletter (2011) explains why cats may prefer running water and gives tips on increasing your cat's water intake.

Pet Education has some tips on how to get your cat to drink more.

About Cats Online has tips on how to get your cat to drink.


Water Fountains

Many people find water fountains increase their cat's water intake. Effect of water source on intake and urine concentration in healthy cats (2010) Grant DC Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 12(6) pp431-4 found that cats drank a bit more from a water fountain but there was not a massive difference. This was a short study though. I found my cats needed time to get used to the fountain, but that they do like it and drink more from it. In fact, when the water fountain is in the dishwasher, we get indignant complaints until it is returned to its rightful place.


There are three main types of water fountain:

My cats have used the large (deluxe) version of the Fresh Flow for several years and they love it (see photo left; I have no idea why Karma clambered over the tapestry frame rather than approaching it from the front or left, but hey, she's a cat and she has her reasons). Some people find the Catit easier to clean. Any of them should be fine for most cats.


When you first get a fountain, leave it out without water in for a few days to allow your cats to get used to it. Then add water, but don't turn it on. Once your cats are drinking from it, turn it on. Be sure to leave other water sources available until you know your cats are willing to use the fountain.


Instructables tells you how to build your own water fountain.

Sixerdoodle Electronics has in


Water Fountains Sources



Pampered Pet Mart sells the Drinkwell for US$34.95.

Valley Vet sells the Petmate Freshflow Water Fountain in the USA for US$33.95 or US$37.95 for the larger model.

Miles Kimball sells a small water fountain for US$19.99.

Drs Foster & Smith sell a variety of water fountains with prices starting around US$20.

Amazon sell the Pioneer stainless steel model for US$54.30.

Drs Foster & Smith sell the Drinkwell stainless steel model for US$99.95.

Glacier Point sells a variety of ceramic fountains.



Pet Planet sells the Deluxe Freshflow Fountain for £51.49.

Pet Planet also sells the Cat-It water fountain for £22.99.

Amazon UK sells a variety of water fountains.



Real Canadian Superstore sells the Petmate Freshflow Water Fountain in Western Canada for CAN$29.98.

Dino Direct sells freestanding water bottle holders, similar to the water supplies designed for hamsters etc. Some cats like this sort of fountain


Oral Rehydration Sachets: Lactade, Pedialyte, Dioralyte

Normally a cat relying on oral fluid intake simply needs water. However, if a cat is clinically dehydrated, perhaps from vomiting or diarrhoea, s/he needs electrolytes (body salts) in addition to water. In such cases your vet may recommend oral rehydration sachets - my vet gave me some of these for use when my cat was recovering from dental surgery.


Veterinary Rehydration Products



Lectade Small Animal Rehydration Sachets is a veterinary oral rehydration product made by Elanco that was available in the UK. It is currently out of stock with most suppliers so I am wondering if it has been discontinued.


Lectade does contain glucose so is not suitable for diabetics. It is also quite expensive. It is not really intended for ongoing use, the manufacturer advises that you can give your cat 100ml of the mixture each day for up to 36 days, but if your vet refuses to allow you to give sub-Qs, s/he may perhaps agree to using Lectade.


These sachets contain citrate, which should not be mixed with phosphorus binders containing aluminium hydroxide because citrate can increase aluminium absorption.


Pet Meds sells Lectade in the UK.

Vet UK sells Lectade in the UK.

Vet UK sells a similar product called Glutalyte which can be used for up to seven days.


Royal Canin Rehydration Support

Royal Canin sells a product called Rehydration Support.


Human Rehydration Products


Pedialyte or Dioralyte

Pedialyte is a popular brand used in the USA, and is designed to rehydrate children with vomiting or diarrhoea.


Dioralyte is a similar popular which is popular in the UK


Only use the unflavoured variety of these products. Do not use without checking with your vet first, and be guided by him/her re dosage.


Vet Info discusses the use of Pedialyte in cats.


If Your Cat Stops Drinking


CKD cats who are not receiving sub-Qs regularly will drink a lot in an effort to keep themselves hydrated. I sometimes hear from people who are worried because their cat has started sub-Qs and is now hardly drinking at all. This is not normally something to worry about - cats who are receiving subcutaneous fluids regularly may drink much less, because some of their hydration needs are being met through the sub-Qs. 


Many CKD cats struggle with appetite, but they will usually continue to drink. Whether your cat is on sub-Qs or not, if s/he stops both drinking and eating, or if severe vomiting or diarrhoea or pancreatitis are present, it is possible that your cat is crashing or at the very least needs some veterinary support, so please contact your vet. Depending upon the situation, your vet may offer sub-Qs or intravenous fluids to help your cat through the crisis. The fluid that your vet uses in such situations is not only water, it also contains electrolytes (body salts) such as potassium, which may be lost in vomiting and diarrhoea.


You may well be able to stop giving sub-Qs once the crisis is over. Eventually, however, most CKD cats will not be able to drink take in enough fluid orally to maintain hydration, at which point they will probably need sub-Qs. In principle, this tends to happen when creatinine levels are consistently over 3.5-4.0 mg/dl (USA) or 300 -350 Ķmol/l (international).


Feeding Tubes


Feeding tubes are inserted for various reasons but one advantage of them is that you can give water (not the fluids usually used for sub-Qs) orally rather than having to give sub-Qs. IRIS treatment recommendations for CKD (2015) International Renal Interest Society state that feeding tubes should be considered for Stage 4 cats, for whom "Feeding tubes can be used to administer fluids as well as food."


ISFM consensus guidelines on the diagnosis and management of feline chronic kidney disease (2016) Sparkes AH, Caney S, Chalhoub S, Elliott J, Finch N, Gajanayake I, Langston C, Lefebvre H, White J & Quimby J Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 18 pp219-239 state "Water can also be administered via a feeding tube, and this may be preferable to subcutaneous fluids in many cases. A feeding tube is suitable for long-term maintenance of hydration and is a more physiological approach."




Back to Page Index

This page last updated: 23 April 1017

Links on this page last checked: 25 July 2016







I have tried very hard to ensure that the information provided in this website is accurate, but I am NOT a vet, just an ordinary person who has lived through CKD with three cats. This website is for educational purposes only, and is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat any cat. Before trying any of the treatments described herein, you MUST consult a qualified veterinarian and obtain professional advice on the correct regimen for your cat and his or her particular requirements; and you should only use any treatments described here with the full knowledge and approval of your vet. No responsibility can be accepted.


If your cat appears to be in pain or distress, do not waste time on the internet, contact your vet immediately.



Copyright © Tanya's Feline CKD Website 2000-2018. All rights reserved.


This site was created using Microsoft software, and therefore it is best viewed in Internet Explorer. I know it doesn't always display too well in other browsers, but I'm not an IT expert so I'm afraid I don't know how to change that. I would love it to display perfectly everywhere, but my focus is on making the information available. When I get time, I'll try to improve how it displays in other browsers.


You may print out one copy of each section of this site for your own information and/or one copy to give to your vet, but this site may not otherwise be reproduced or reprinted, on the internet or elsewhere, without the permission of the site owner, who can be contacted via the Contact Me page.


This site is a labour of love on my part. Please do not steal from me by taking credit for my work.

If you wish to link to this site, please feel free to do so. Please make it clear that this is a link and not your own work. I would appreciate being informed of your link.